# Questions tagged [digital-communications]

Digital Communication is the physical transfer of data (a digital bit stream) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

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### OQPSK vs QPSK envelope query

We use OQPSK because of envelope of signal but my question is "In Phase Shift Keying(or QPSK) the amplitude of the transmitted signal is constant then how the envelope will change in OQPSK"??
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### Identifying the correct source of packets

I have a basic question regarding digital communication , especially pertaining to wireless internet . A packet is basically a stream of bits . And a bit is detected as zero or 1 depending on ...
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### Possibility of using Power allocation with Maximum likelihood estimation

I have a basic question about maximum likelihood (ML) estimator and its implementation with power allocation. Suppose we are using $MIMO$ system with $4$x$4$ transmit and receive antennas, so the ...
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### What is Assymptotic Equipartition Property?

I am currently studying about Polar Codes in 5G standard and while reading my paper I found something called AEP which is required for channel coding. I surfed the web but didn't found a satisfying ...
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### Why does power spectral density of OFDM signal changes with number of zero subcarriers

I am trying to plot the power spectral density (PSD) of an OFDM signal with $N_{dsc}$ subcarriers and $N_{zeros} = N_{fft}-N_{dsc}$ zero subcarriers. I am using the matlab function pwelch() to plot ...
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### BER vs Eb/N0 (db) Curve

So, I was trying to plot BER (Bit Error Rate) vs. Eb/No (in dB) curve using Python. Here is what I get, Eb/N0 is in dB on the x-axis But I know that this is not the correct graph. Here is my code. ...
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### confused in practical example of shift invariance?

I am reading book of w smith ,"The scientist and engineer guide to digital signal processing" 2 edition I am trying to understand topic of shift invariance from theory given on pg 92 I have attached ...
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### Compress a signal by storing signal diff instead of actual samples - is there such a thing?

I am working with EMG signals sampled at 2kHz and 16 bits, and noticed that they "look smooth", that is, the signals are differentiable, and if I apply a "diff" function (...
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### Time delay estimation between two complex signals(IQ)

I need to time align two complex signals. The two signals obtained were at different RF frequency before digitisation. So,I have two complex signals(IQ) and I need to do delay estimation and apply ...
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### guard interval calculation for multi-cell massive MIMO

I am interested in a multi-call massive-MIMO system modeled as in the works of T. Marzetta, for example: "Inter-Cell Interference in Noncooperative TDD Large Scale Antenna Systems". In these works, ...
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### Beamforming back lobes question

When performing a conventional digital beamforming I see in some textbooks they show beam patterns as where the arrival angle ranges between -90 to 90 degrees. But then other places show the full ...
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### GNU Radio | Transceiver loopback adapted | Transmission stops unexpectedly

(This is a follow up question to a previous question: link) I have implemented a flowgraph of a transceiver loopback inspired by the examples found at ...
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### Time frequency analysis for a spreading signal

I am a beginner in digital communications: I am studying the spread spectrum communication and I have a question on the spreading signals. For example I have 2 spreading signals and I do a time ...
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### Why can the :$\mathbf W^*_{MMSE}$ be written as $E[\mathbf s \mathbf y^*]E[\mathbf y \mathbf y^*]^{-1}$

I read this paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1305.2460.pdf And there is a formula about MMSE:$\mathbf W^*_{MMSE}= E[\mathbf s \mathbf y^*]E[\mathbf y \mathbf y^*]^{-1}$ $\mathbf W _{BB}$:Baseband ...
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### Can the j be equal to k in the first formula ?In MISO system

In this system model,the received signal available for RF EH at each RX_k is given by However,its SINR formula is given by We can find that author said the j can't be equal to k,but their range are ...
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### What are the limitations of using Magnetic induction rather than acoustic communication in underwater communication

In underwater environment, Why acoustic underwater communications are still famous more than magnetic induction communication however in magnetic induction underwater communication, higher data rate ...
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### DSSS direct sequence spread spectrum - encoding each raw data bit (question)

For implementing DSSS, it is understood that each raw data bit needs to be encoded as a new recognizeable/identifiable bit pattern. In many literature involving DSSS, there is mention of using PN ...
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### What is the unit of a complex AWGN variance? mW or W?

In this paper https://arxiv.org/pdf/1805.08898.pdf ,there is a variance be written as $\sigma^2_{h,k}=\theta d_k^{- \alpha}$, $\sigma^2_{h,k}$ is the variance of th channel,$d_k$ is the distance ...
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### From IQ to pi/4 DQPSK

I need to decode $\frac\pi4$-DQPSK packets from an SDR, preferably in C#. I have the SDR receiver part done. Now I'm trying to learn how to take the IQ stream and get the packet info from it. I've ...
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### 5G NR base matrix

The 5G NR specs for channel code are found here: https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/138200_138299/138212/15.02.00_60/ts_138212v150200p.pdf Starting on page 21 there is base matrix for the LDPC code ...
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### Spatial diversity: symbol error probability, upper bound

I am trying to understand the calculation upper bound that is given in book. Edit 1: I added 3,44 Can someone explain to me how to come from (5.5) to (5.7) ?
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### Working principal of MIMO(2 by 2)-OFDM (802.11n)

I have gained basic knowledge on MIMO-OFDM from online sources and in process of building 802.11n standard in GnuRadio+USRP B210. My goal is to analyze the channel state information and play with it ...
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### Using Spreading spectral with Maximal likelihood

As asked here, HERE if we have the signal x = [0.7 + 0.7i; 0.7 - 0.7i; -0.7 + 0.7i; -0.7 -0.7i]; Which was spread over code ...
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### Channel model: LOS Component and Rician K-factor

I am asking about Rician K- Factor in this model: I know that if $K=0$ then it is a pure Rayleigh fading, if $K= \infty$, then non fading Channel. What is it, if $0<K<\infty$ ? If i represet ...
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### Training Fractionally Spaced Channel Estimator and Equalizer

If you are attempting least squares channel estimation with a fractionally spaced channel estimator, do you want the training sequence to also be fractionally spaced or symbol spaced? It looks like ...
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### Channel estimation

In single-carrier systems, at the receiver, when we need to do channel estimation and equalization? Do we need to do before timing synchronization and CFO correction or before it? And, please let me ...
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### Determining signal using Optimal receiver(Matched filter)

I'm given a signal that has been passed through a noisy channel using binary polar signaling with a pulse value of p(t) = 1. The receiver is coherent and the length of each pulse (in samples) is 10 ...
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### chirp spread spectrum with 2 users

I am a beginner in digatal communications. I have 2 users and I want use a chirp spread spectrum. Can we take an up-chirp and a down-chirp as spreading signals for the 2 users? and if yes, why? The ...
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### operations valid for predicting new codewords for a Linear block code having linear encoder mapping

I want to know which operations are valid for predicting/finding a new codeword from a set of known codewords for a linear block code having linear encoder mapping, for eg.: Consider a linear ...
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### Using MIMO with DS-CDMA and spread spectrum

I have a question about using MIMO with DS-CDMA. suppose we are using 4 TX antennas, and 4 RX antennas, then the Reyleigh ...
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### Understanding FFT size in OFDM modulation

I know that the FFT size is the the number of subcarriers OFDM system have. But I also know that the FFT has to be $2^N$ big (in order to process N samples from time domain to frequency domain). ...
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### bandwidth for a chirp

Let $s(t)$ an up-chirp with bandwidth $B$ and $y(t)$ an down-chirp with the same bandwidth. For a multi user chirp spread spectrum (2 users), I use the up-chirp and down-chirp as spreading signal. The ...
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### OFDM system with cyclic prefix

I have: Bit rate $R_b = 25.6 [Mbit/s]$ Sampling frequency at the input of the receiver: $f_p = 8 [MHz]$ Protective spacing between successive OFDM symbols: $τ = 16 [µs]$ The combined length of ...
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### orthogonal family and pulse shaping filter

I am a beginner in digital communications and I have a question on the pulse shaping filter. For example, I have an orthogonal family $\{s_1,...,s_N \}$. Can we preserve the orthogonality with a ...
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### QAM constellation coder - transmitting a file

The file with size 6 MB is transmitted in 100 seconds using a constellation coder QAM with a constellation of 6 bit/symbol ${ M = 10^6, B = 8}$ Tasks: 1. What is the signal bandwidth if the band ...
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### upsampling in the frequency domain

I have the Fourier transform $S(\nu)$. If I oversample by a factor $R$ in the frequency domain. Does the duration of the signal $s(t)=IFFT(S(\nu))$ change?
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### How can I spread a modulated signal over walsh code

I need to confirm if spreading signal by using walsh code in MATLAB is right or no, Suppose I'm using QAM modulation, so I need to spread the signal over walsh code, is the below step is right: <...
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### time for a signal after a sum

I have a signal $s(t)$ of duration $T$ with limited bandwidth. In matlab, I use a sampling frequency $fs$ and I have $L=T*fs$. After, I have $r=ones(size(s))+s$. To have a limited bandwidth, I filter ...
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### What is the meaning of inverse signal bandwidth?

I have been studying the two ray model in communication systems. The text I'm studying has two signals, $u(t)$, which is Line of Sight and $u(t-t')$, which is the reflected signal. It quotes, ...
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### Digital receivers for the reception of non pulse shaped signals [closed]

We are used to deal with pulse shaped signals, for example signals that go through root raised cosine filters at the transmit, and then matched with root raised cosine filters at the receive In ...
In Wireless Communication, sometimes the received signal is expressed (in time-domain) as follows: $$r=hx+n$$ where $h$ is called a fading coefficient and sometimes it is expressed as: $$r=h*x+n$$ ...