Questions tagged [digital-communications]

Digital Communication is the physical transfer of data (a digital bit stream) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

29
votes
6answers
47k views

Understanding the Matched Filter

I have a question about matched filtering. Does the matched filter maximise the SNR at the moment of decision only? As far as I understand, if you put, say, NRZ through a matched filter, the SNR ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Location of Matched Filter

In a digital communication receiver, matched filter(SRRC filter) is used. In different literatures, the location of the matched filter is mentioned in two different places. One is just after the ADC ...
0
votes
1answer
17k views

Deriving SER & BER for 4QAM, 16QAM and 32QAM

Required to find symbol error rate vs $\dfrac{E_b}{N_0}$ for 4QAM, 16QAM & 32QAM. Thought that SER & BER are the same but did my research to find that BER is $\dfrac{1}{\log_2(M)}$ of SER...(...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

Phase synchronization in BPSK

In BPSK for demodulation at the receiver end we do phase recovery between received wave and carrier wave. We can find the phase difference between the carrier and received waves using : PLL And ...
10
votes
4answers
14k views

How is symbol synchronization with OFDM done?

I'm trying to understand how symbol synchronization is done in OFDM using pilot tones, cyclic prefixes, or any other technique. I've read the following answers which provide some explanation, but I ...
0
votes
3answers
745 views

Processing OBPSK as OQPSK

I'm trying to create and process an OBPSK signal, which, as I understand it, transmits even bits on one axis and the odd bits on the opposite axis, resulting in a constellation with 4 unique points. ...
13
votes
1answer
10k views

How to perform carrier phase recovery in software?

What are the options for recovering the phase of a BPSK signal in software? The only resources I can find online contain circuit diagrams – there seems to be no one willing to explain this to people ...
3
votes
2answers
286 views

Quadrature modulation

I have a question: What is the difference between $ I \cos(t) - Q \sin(t) $ and $ I \cos(t) + Q \sin(t) $ except that they are phase shifted 90 degrees ? On the internet I can find both ...
0
votes
1answer
656 views

How channel state information is calculated from Sounding Packet

What I understand is for Explicit Transmit Beamforming scenario, the Transmitter sends an NDP packet(aka HT Sounding) which consist of OFDM training symbols in packet preamble (HT-LTF) which are ...
23
votes
2answers
7k views

Extracting Binary Magnetic-Strip Card Data from raw WAV

I am faced with a tricky challenge: To extract binary data from an iPhone magnetic strip card reader. This is what the magnetisation on the card looks like: Source Here is the .WAV the iPhone ...
2
votes
2answers
8k views

Relation between Bandwidth and Baud-Rate for 8-PSK

I have a query on relationship between Baud Rate and Bandwidth for 8-PSK. In 8-PSK as 3 bits together form a symbol, so Bandwidth = 2R/3 , R is Bit Rate As bit ...
15
votes
1answer
5k views

How to estimate and compensate for doppler shift in wireless signals?

I was wondering what good method(s) exist for the estimation (and subsequent compensation) of doppler shift for transmitted signals, be they acoustic or RF, in the context of comms. The question: ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

MATLAB : Proper estimation of weights and how to calculate MSE for QPSK signal for Constant Modulus Algorithm

I had asked conceptual Question about Constant Modulus Algorithm. I am implementing the simple steps of the algorithm, as I do not have the cma() built in module. ...
3
votes
2answers
333 views

Why is CDMA not enough for wireless communication?

I have a question about CDMA, FDMA and TDMA. I don't understand why we suffer from limited capacity when we have CDMA. I can understand the limitation in FDMA and TDMA, as time and frequency are ...
2
votes
1answer
609 views

Loop bandwidth for symbol timing recovery

I am trying to design the Symbol timing recovery (STR) block of DVBS Receiver. How should I chose the loop bandwidth and damping ratio for determining the loop filter coefficients $k_1$ and $k_2$? ...
1
vote
1answer
3k views

How to Simulate AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) in Communication Systems for Specific Bandwidth

I am trying to generate a AWGN waveform to add it to the signal of my simulated communication system. The operating bandwidth of the communication system is about ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

baseband and passband modulation

I have a simulink model over 2.4GHz. In the transmitter part, the modulation is O-QPSK modulated baseband instead of passband modulation. In Matlab Help this is the reason of using baseband ...
1
vote
3answers
1k views

Pulse Shaping in Digital communication

I am new here. I hope I can get help. I want to ask a question regarding digital communication. Does anyone know what are pulse shaping used for? Are they used for ISI mitigation or for something ...
2
votes
2answers
136 views

Method of reconstructing a band-limited signal from discrete samples

I understand current cell phones use digital communications. Given that this industry brings in billions of dollars each year, there is much incentive to get the best performance possible. So what ...
1
vote
0answers
134 views

Basic “filtering” in digital communications

I am completely stuck on solving some problems for my digital communications class. Junior level undergrad class, so fairly basic. I have been searching around all day for related articles etc but can'...
0
votes
1answer
190 views

How to calculate transmission capacity?

My textbook doesn't explain how they got the answer to this question: "If a transmission channel uses an analog carrier wave that is modulated by eight amplitudes and sixteen frequencies per bit ...
4
votes
2answers
778 views

Alamouti code after or before IFFT block in OFDM

We are trying to implement Alamouti STBC on underlying ofdm signal. We were thinking as to where to write alamouti coder block. I thought we could write it after the cyclic prefixer block as we get a ...
3
votes
1answer
173 views

Computing the decimation ratio between two m-sequences

Let's suppose I have an LFSR that generates an m-sequence $y_1[k]$ --- in other words, the LFSR has $N$ bits and $y_1[k]$ has period $m=2^N - 1$. Now suppose I know someone has decimated this and ...
1
vote
1answer
921 views

Sampling signal after root raised cosine

I am generating series of 1 and 0. then pulse shaped them with root raised cosine and after than deciding to do match filtering and recovering the bits however it turns out that I am not getting the ...
1
vote
1answer
974 views

Adding AWGN noise with a correct noise power to the signal

I would like to add AWGN noise to my BPSK and QPSK signal. So assume the BPSK signal is x1 and QPSK signal is x2. The ...
1
vote
1answer
118 views

Decoders, Detectors and Demodulators

In digital communication systems, we use forward error correction codes such as LDPC, turbo, convolutional codes (to decrease the bit error), then we have to use an appropriate decoder at the receiver ...
8
votes
1answer
456 views

Which digital modulation scheme would be suitable for transmitting digital data through the output of a PC soundcard

I need to output a data stream at $40\textrm{ kbit/s}$ or faster out of a computer system whose only accessible output peripheral is the audio interface. This interface has reasonable specs, $96\...
4
votes
2answers
473 views

Alternative to Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) Algorithm

In the Compressed Sensing context, assume there is a signal $ x \in {\mathbb{R}}^{n} $ which is $ k $ sparse. Namely its Pseudo $ {\ell}_{0} $ Norm is $ {\left\| x \right\|}_{0} = k $ (The signal has ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

OFDM training symbol format

For OFDM synchronisation, we are using two training symbols according to the Schmidl and Cox method of frequency synchronization and timing synchronization. The paper says: The first OFDM training ...
3
votes
1answer
5k views

Purpose of interleaving in OFDM systems

Interleaving is often encountered in digital communication systems. I have seen interleaving between codewords in a single OFDM symbols as follows Assume the bits are denoted by $$\{c_o,c_1,c_2,\...
3
votes
1answer
537 views

Average Power Spectral Density of PAM signals

I am reading through the PAM transmission scheme and about the power spectral density of the signals. Given that the Average Power Spectral Density of PAM Signals is: $$ \Phi_{ss}(f)=\Phi_{aa}\left(e^...
3
votes
3answers
3k views

cyclic prefix in ofdm

In ofdm systems after applying IDFT we take the last N/x samples and place them before these N samples. This is called cyclic prefix(CP).So why to use a cyclic prefix? Why is the CP known to combat ...
2
votes
1answer
6k views

Use of equalizers in communication systems for Intersymbol Interference

In communication systems with high data rates, Intersymbol Interference (ISI) is a major problem (ISI). I have read in books that one way to combat this problem is to use time domain equalizers (ZF, ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

What is difference between the terms bit rate,baud rate and data rate?

Let us consider any video signal. Bit rate of a video signal is the no of bits per frame per second. Also, data rate is the no of bits per second. Baud rate is the number of signal changes per second....
1
vote
1answer
51 views

External frequency divider in a PLL

Does a frequency divider external to the loop BW of a PLL cause any phase ambiguity ? and why? and is the result of dividing by an odd number different than dividing by an even number?
1
vote
1answer
368 views

Symbol timing synchronization using a high sampling rate

Symbol timing synchronization usually relies on a digital PLL procedure, an iterative process that relies on detecting a timing error signal that is used to control an interpolation filter that in its ...
12
votes
1answer
3k views

Optimum matched filter without ISI

Given a filter used to shape the digital signal, $p(x)$, and given that we do not want the filter combination to cause any ISI, what "matched" filter, $q(x)$ will maximise the SNR? Matched filters ...
5
votes
1answer
7k views

What does the one-tap equalizer used with OFDM accomplish?

I've read that OFDM normally uses a one-tap equalizer. It seems that a one-tap equalizer could only scale and delay a signal. Why is this useful? I thought multipath was handled through the cyclic-...
4
votes
1answer
562 views

Power Spectral Density of Digital Modulations

I want to simulate the power spectral densities of different modulations in MATLAB (without Simulink). Unfortunately I have only very basic understanding of signal processing, hence I struggle with ...
3
votes
1answer
346 views

What is the theoretical upperbound of information that could be transmitted by a device per second?

Suppose I would like to stream data from a device in a single second. What would be the theoretical upperbound of the amount of information (in bits, bytes, pixels...) that could be sent during this ...
3
votes
0answers
90 views

GNU Radio | Transceiver loopback adapted | Transmission stops unexpectedly

(This is a follow up question to a previous question: link) I have implemented a flowgraph of a transceiver loopback inspired by the examples found at ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

What are the advantages of barker sequence over marker sequnce?

I read that barker sequence is used for synchronization among other uses. Barker sequences are rare and they have special properties - this part I understood. I am missing some thing when I think ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

Apply AWGN noise to QPSK-OFDM symbol

I'm working on an OFDM-QPSK based system and I'm having some trouble to match the BER of my system with the theoretical curve. My OFDM implementation fills all the subcarriers and have t_symbol s ...
1
vote
2answers
44 views

What is the duration of the spreading sequence

I have a question regarding the spreading sequence duration using Walsh matrix. I've read a paper related to that, they consider the signal $S = R(S) + I(S)$, where $R(S), I(S)$ are the real and ...
1
vote
1answer
168 views

Periodically-varying phase between transmitted sound and received sound

I have a function that can find the phase difference between two signals, this function uses Hilbert transform to do so. Here is the python code for it ...
1
vote
1answer
136 views

Concatenated Deletion & Sticky Channel Capacity

Suppose you are sending information through a deletion channel with a deletion rate of .5 and then the output of this channel is sent through a sticky channel with a repeat rate of .5 also. No error ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

How to convert time-domain signal to complex envelope?

Matlab and Simulink Communications Toolbox digital demodulators are defined to only work on the complex envelope representation of a baseband signal. To obtain the time-domain representation of this ...
1
vote
2answers
457 views

Relationship between $E_b/N_0$ and $\rm SNR$ with channel coding

I would like to know what would be the relationship between $E_b/N_0$ and $\rm SNR$ when there is a coding rate of $R_c=K/N$. Normally when there is no channel coding according to this link. $$\...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Using MIMO with DS-CDMA and spread spectrum

I have a question about using MIMO with DS-CDMA. suppose we are using 4 TX antennas, and 4 RX antennas, then the Reyleigh ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Using Spreading spectral with Maximal likelihood

As asked here, HERE if we have the signal x = [0.7 + 0.7i; 0.7 - 0.7i; -0.7 + 0.7i; -0.7 -0.7i]; Which was spread over code ...