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# Questions tagged [convolution]

Convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions f and g, producing a third function that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions.

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### Step-by-Step calculation of stationary wavelet transform gives shifted results?

Good morning, I am doing an SWT by hand to understand it better, and have a couple of questions. Maybe someone here has experience with this? I am using the book "Conceptual Wavelets" by Fugal, ...
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### Find the output for the input $e^{-t}u(t)$ and impulse response $\sin 3t u(t)$

Find the convolution between $e^{-t}u(t)$ and $\sin 3t u(t)$. I have tried to solve it the following way. Please help me find the correct solution Solution:
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### Find the convolution between $e^{-t} u(t)$ and the gate pulse shown in the figure

Find the convolution between $e^{-t} u(t)$ and the gate pulse shown in the figure. I have tried to solve it in the following manner. My answer does not match with the one given in the textbook. I am ...
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### Find the convolution between $e^{-t} u(t)$ and $e^{-2t} u(t-3)$

Find the convolution between $e^{-t} u(t)$ and $e^{-2t} u(t-3)$ I have tried to solve it in the following manner. My answer does not match with the one given in the textbook. I am not sure if I am ...
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### Zero padding in frequency domain, any tricks to speedup?

there are many situations when one has to carry some operations on spectra, like splitting a spectrum Z wide in two Z/2 spectra, or vice versa merging two Z sized spectra in a 2Z sized one. The only ...
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### How to manually implement convolution with FFTs?

I'm trying to manually implement a convolution using FFTs and it isn't working as expected. I know I'm probably missing some subtlety with padding, shifting, or conjugation, (all of which I've tried ...
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### convolution expression h(n,k) = h(n-k)

As a new to DSP concepts want to understand the meaning of impulse response and why we do $h(n-k)$ in convolution and $h(n+k)$ in correlation.
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### How to perform dechirping of SAR image in MATLAB?

I have the transmitted pulse and the raw SAR image before range compression (dechirping). I understand the pulse compression its a convolution along the columns but I am not able to make it work. I've ...
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### Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). How to do Range Compression?

I am trying to perform range compression to a raw SAR image [fast times, sensor position], Dr in code. I have the transmitted signal (chirp), g in code, and literature says range compression is ...
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### U-nets : how exaclty is upsampling performed

In U-nets I would like a more straight-forward/detailed explanation in how the upsampling part ("right part of the U") is performed. I read that it can be done by "transposed convolution layers" aka....
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### Transposed convolutional layer

Can someone define the weights in a transposed conv2D kernel used to perform interpolation (NN or bilinear or whatever)? The idea is to get "convinced" that one can perform upsampling (interpolation) ...
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### Variance of zero-mean signal after convolution for SIR computation

my goal is to scale desired, interfering signal at the receiver in order to achieve desired SIR (signal to interference ratio) for beamforming (source separation) application. Let be: $s(t)$ a known ...
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### LTI, causal, discrete time system output

Consider a discrete time LTI causal system $S: y = S(u)$, with its impulse response $h:{Z} \rightarrow R:h(n)=3^{n+1}{H(n)}$ with $H$ the Heaviside function. We know the values of input: $$u(0) = 2$$...
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### Do $|s(t)|$ and $|S(f)|$ uniquely determine $s(t)$?

Consider a signal $s(t)$. My question is if you know $|s(t)|$ and $|\mathcal{FT}[s(t)](f)| = |S(f)|$ or equivalently $|s(t)|^2$ and $|S(f)|^2$ is it possible to determine $s(t)$? That is, is $s(t)$ ...
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### Partitioned overlap-add convolution - strange behavior at buffer boundaries

I've implemented a convolution reverb that operates in real-time, one audio buffer at a time (using FFTS for the fft bits). However, there's some strange behavior at the start of every buffer. ...
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### Understanding convolution of Chirp z algorithm

I dont´t understand how works the convolution part of the Chirp z. I understand how the DFT is transformed \begin{align*} x(k) = \sum_{n=0}^{N-1} x(n) W_N^{kn} \end{align*} to this expresion: \...
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### How does minimum-latency partitioned convolution reverb work when you receive input samples in chunks, rather than one at a time?

I'm writing a reverb system where I receive an input block of samples 480 elements long, do some operation on them, and pass the block on to the next effect. I've been reading up on partitioned ...
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### Representing a continuous LTI system as a discrete one

I am aware that there are different ways to represent a continuous time system in discrete domain (e.g. bilinear transform, impulse invariance transform). But my problem is as follows: Given an ...
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### Why Are There Two Different Common $3 \times 3$ Kernels for the Laplacian?

I find both of these 3x3 Laplacian kernels to be commonly used: 0 -1 0 -1 4 -1 0 -1 0 and: -1 -1 -1 -1 8 -1 -1 -1 -1 ...
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### Why do convolution kernels such as Gaussian, Laplacian, LoG almost always seem to be expressed in integers?

I'm a total newb in search of some deeper understanding, but I'm not able to read the maths behind these on Wikipedia. If I understand correctly, you get the new value for each pixel by multiplying ...
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### Convolution between two vectors. Length and normalization

I have an RIR vector $h[n]$ with $N$ samples and an audio source $x[n]$ with $M$ samples. I wish to simulate a 5 seconds audio segment with $x[n]$ randomly located within (timewise). Using MATLABs <...
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### Difference between the two forms of input-output relationships of an LTI system

$$y(t)=f(t)*h(t)\tag{1}$$ $$y(t)=H(s)e^{st}\tag{2}$$ $$H(s)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}h(t)e^{-st}dt\tag{3}$$ Let $f(t)$ in Eqn $(1)$ be $e^{st}$. In many worked out examples, I have found that the two ...
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### Faster Algorithm to convolve/correlate two sparse 1-D signals in python (or any language)

I have two signals which I need to correlate or convolve. Each signal is sampled non-uniformly and the values of the signal I have with me are the timestamp and the magnitude of the signal at that ...
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### Determining LTI system response to a scale change

We know that for an LTI system, if $y(t)$ is the output for $x(t)$ then the response for $x(t-2)$ will be $y(t-2)$ and so on. But my question is what will be the system response for the input $x(-2t)$...
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### MATLAB Convolution

I am designing an IIR notch filter using pole-zero placement method. I am trying to convolve the two zero locations using ...
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### Serial filtering using FFT

lets say I have 3 audio filters for a realtime DSP application. For simplictity each has length 256 (as well as the input signal). The filters should work in series. Starting with filter IR h1(n) and ...
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### What is the point spread function and optical transfer function and what uses are they in image processing

So I seem to really be struggling with the concepts of the point spread function (PSF) and optical transfer function (OTF) and what they are used for in image processing. Everything I seem to google ...
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### Given local responses by a bank of equally spaced (log-)Gabor filters, how can we estimate the response of an intermediate-scale filter?

Consider a grayscale image convolved with a bank of 2D wavelet quadrature pairs – in my case, log-Gabor filters. I have eight filters. For simplicity, let's say they are all vertically oriented, and ...