# Questions tagged [control-systems]

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### A good textbook for designing signal filters

Since a couple of months ago I started being actively involved in the area of control of dynamical systems. In most cases, designing a controller for a given dynamic system will require the ...
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### State space physical meaning

Let $T(s)$ be a transfer function that describes a mechanical system, where the input is force and the output is position. And let $[A,B,C,D]$ be the equivalent state-space representation of $T(s)$, ...
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### How accurate is the dominant poles approximation in higher order control systems?

From what I have learnt from control systems classes, the dominant poles of a system are those that can be used to analyze a higher order system in terms of the formulas of a 2nd order system. I took ...
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### What is the difference between a lag compensation and PI control?

A lag filter or compensator has the Laplace transform transfer function $$G_c(s) = \frac{s+z}{s+p},$$ with $-z < -p < 0$. In practice, the effect of lag compensation in feedback control, is to ...
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### Why doesn't the convolution of the impulse response match the system's output?

If you define an LTI system sys in scipy, you may conveniently feed an input x to it to get ...
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### How do I get a faster system response?

I have this model in simulink (the graph is my output): The step input has amplitude 0.5 m/s, and it steps up after 0.1 seconds. The gain $K_p=5$. The saturation block is to keep the voltage between -...
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### What is the difference between a controller and a compensator?

I recently revisited some texts on control theory. In some textbooks the term compensator is used, seemingly interchangeably with controller (see e.g. The Control Handbook by Levine, chapter 14 on ...
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### Effects of delay in a discrete-time controller for a continuous-time plant

I'm trying to understand the effects of sample-to-update delay in digital control of power electronics. I am aware of the issue but not 100% sure how to quantify it. There is an interesting paper by ...
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### How to establish transfer function of a speaker?

I'm working on a signal processing project about vocal system, and I'm trying to use controlling theories to solve the problem. I need to get the transfer function, $H(s)$, of a speaker, from ...
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### Determining the final value of the output of a discrete system

I'm going through an exam question where I've been told that the samples $f(kT)$ of the following function $${F\left(z\right)=\frac{1}{1-0.819z^{-1}}}$$ are applied to a ...
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### Find transfer function from root locus and step response diagram?

I am given the response of a step of magnitude of 3 and the root locus and I have to find the transfer function of the system. The function I find gives me the step response(magnitude of 3 again) of ...
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### Understanding an adaptative single neuron PID controller

I only know the "vanilla" use of a Kalman filter and I am currently trying to understand an article available here (the algorithm is presented in the 6 first pages) : Adaptive Single Neuron ...
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### How to evaluate a close-loop control during transient?

I have implement a close-loop control in order to perform the tracking of the desired signal R. The basic scenario shall be summarized as follow: I have to evaluate the performance of my control G ...
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### Developing Lead Compensator to Decrease Settle Time

This is a follow up to this question. I've approximated the transfer function for a system to be H = zpk([0.012 -1.05 18],[-0.22 -0.22 -45 -1000],10000);. My goal ...
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### Digital control: Exercise solution

Can you help me (show me how) to solve the following exercise? For the process with transfer function $G(s)=e^{-2s}/(s+1)$ design a digital controller with sampling time $T_{s} = 1$ that meets the ...
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### Why oscillations in PI control?

When integral control is added to proportional controller (i.e. PI control), why steady state error becomes 0 and why oscillations appear , how actually the integrator works ?
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### In the context of transfer functions, what is the relationship between the terms "proper", "causal", and "realizable"?

I am thinking about these terms in the context of linear control. A transfer function is proper if the degree of the numerator is not greater than the degree of the denominator. I've read often that ...
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### Control design: under what conditions can closed-loop poles be placed arbitrarily?

Say we have a single-input linear system $\dot{\mathbf{x}} = A\mathbf{x}+Bu$. With full-state feedback ($u=-G\mathbf{x}$), it is straightforward to arbitrarily place the $n$ closed-loop poles (i.e., ...
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### How do we determine the required sampling rate of a closed loop control system?

Consider the controlled dynamical system $\dot{x}_t = f(x_t, u(t-\tau_{sd}))$, where $0<\tau_{sd}$ denotes the time delay caused by sampling. It is intuitively clear that the time delay caused by ...
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