# Questions tagged [control-systems]

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### Design discrete controller for zero steady state error

I have the following system where $$G(s)=\frac{0.5}{s+1}+\frac{5}{s+10}$$ How can I design the C(z) controller so that the steady state error for a step input r(t)=1(t) is zero? I know that this ...
1answer
227 views

### Step response of a differentiating system

Consider I can find the step response of a system with the following method: We can easily find the step input of a system from its transfer function. Given a system with input $x(t)$, output $y(t)$ ...
0answers
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### How can I find the transfer function from this Bode diagram?

I've been given this bode diagram : I've been asked to find the transfer function only by using the bode diagram. It's the first time I'm doing this so here's what I thought. The starting value is ...
1answer
63 views

### What means ideal integrator in this MIMO system state diagram?

Can someone explain me what ideal integrator is as simple as possible? Which meaning it has in this diagram? $A,B,C$ and $D$ are matrices. $u$ is input and $y$ is output.
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### Orthogonal signal generator using integer arithmetic

I have a problem with implementing an orthogonal signal generator (OSG) algorithm on a microcontroller using integer arithmetic. I use this algorithm for a single-phase phase-locked loop (PLL) ...
2answers
4k views

### Why oscillations in PI control?

When integral control is added to proportional controller (i.e. PI control), why steady state error becomes 0 and why oscillations appear , how actually the integrator works ?
1answer
327 views

### Equation that describes a gravity drained tank system

I have a system like this: The upper tank has an input ($q_i$) and an output, that is the input for the lower tank ($q_{12}$). The lower tank has an output ($q_o$). Does anyone know how to get the ...
1answer
208 views

### Regarding the choice of cost function in adaptive control - squared error vs absolute error

I did search the question database regarding this question, and although one or two questions came close, they didn't really address my specific question. In adaptive control based on minimizing ...
1answer
72 views

### Control theory: how do you initialize input for a model predictive controller?

Although I think this is a pretty popular algorithm, I posted this question on electronics stacksexchange but received no response. I am posting it here to see if there are many signal/control experts ...
0answers
2k views

### Deriving the transfer functions of a heating system

I'm tying to develop a model for a heated system that consists of a small steel block (~25 sq. in.) with a heating element embedded in it. The block acts as a sort of hot-plate that is used to deform ...
0answers
33 views

### Perturbation test for a real plant

How should we conduct a perturbation test for an LTI unknown system by perturbing the input to see the output response i.e. How many different perturbation step size should be given to the input?
1answer
316 views

### Designing observer with non-observable system

I have this state-space system \begin{align} \dot{x}&=\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0\\3 & -2\end{bmatrix}x+\begin{bmatrix}10\\0 \end{bmatrix}u\\ y&=\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0\end{bmatrix}x \end{...
1answer
352 views

### Nyquist with only poles at the origin

I need to solve this three exercises: $$G_1(s) = \frac{1}{s}$$ $$G_2(s) = \frac{1}{s^2}$$ $$G_3(s) = \frac{1}{s^3}$$ This is what I did: For the single pole ($1/s$), magnitude of A is $\infty$ and ...
2answers
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### What are the advantages of LTI ( Linear Time Invariant ) systems over other systems? [duplicate]

In our engineering academics, there is one subject named "signals and systems". In this subject only LTI system is discussed. I want to know what are the advantages of LTI systems over other ...
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1k views

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### Designing a root-locus compensator to attain design requirements

I am working with Matlab to design a compensator capable to make a system attain the design requirements ($\omega_n\geq 0.3$ rad/s & $\xi\geq 0.5$). In order to do so I have a discrete-time ...
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584 views

### What is the Reference in Control Theory?

I've started studying Control and I've come across some concepts that I'm finding a bit difficult to understand. For example, in the system showed here, there is a signal called "reference" as well ...
1answer
214 views

### Can bandwidth of the closed loop be bigger than bandwidth of individual elements in it?

This is a question from control theory but I hope you can help me with it. I was pointed to this community. So in my control loop I have elements that have cut-off frequency of 3-5kHz and I designed ...
1answer
87 views

### Showing a system is always controllable?

I need to show that the following system is always controllable: \begin{align}A &= \begin{bmatrix} -\alpha_1I_{k\times k}& -\alpha_2I_{k\times k}& \cdots &-\alpha_{n-1}I_{k\times k}&...
0answers
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### Control of pendulum (crane trolley)

I need to control crane trolley (pendulum), I have state space representation as: \$ A=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & \frac{m_b}{m_j}g & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 &...
0answers
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### Parameter identification for PI controller

I have a PI temperature controller being used in experiments, which I am also trying to simulate. However, using the proportional gain and integral time as used in the experiments gives different ...
1answer
153 views

### What does variance actually mean in control theory?

The question is about the notion of variance in control theory, a college course I am taking. Ever since I can remember, in every maths or physics class, whenever a professor started teaching ...
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### How to tune PID parameters to track a family of reference signals?

I have a system that is controlled by a PID controller. I tune the controller to track a reference signal that is a unit step function. Is there a way to extend the obtained results to be able to ...