# Questions tagged [continuous-signals]

A continuous signal or a continuous-time signal is a varying quantity (a signal) whose domain, which is often time, is a continuum.

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### How to Prove a System Is Invertible?

what i know is that for a system to be invertibel it should be one-one , but I am confused that if i am given a transfer function of a LTI system how can I prove or verify if it is invertible. ...
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### Peak Detection on ECG signal

I've been working on a ECG signal collected during exercise through my chest mount heart rate monitor. My goal is to accurately detect the location of the R-wave; R-wave is the narrow peak similar to ...
128 views

### Discrete Kalman filter for a continuous system

The question is related to the implementation of a discrete kalman filter given a description of the system model in continuous time. I will give an example. Suppose we have a mass, spring and damper ...
58 views

### Computing response of LTI system in terms of its step response

I have solved a problem, Kindly help me in determing if I solved it correctly. I will post the question and my own working below. Problem My working
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### Why doesn't sampling a periodic continuous-time signal yield a periodic discrete-time signal?

I have been studying signals and systems lately and I have came across the following claim: The uniform sampling of a periodic continuous-time signal may not be periodic! Can someone please ...
51 views

### Conversion from continuous to sampled signal?

I am bit confused regarding sampling as i read different types of statements in different texts Forexample i have a continous time signal $x=sin(t)$ defined for $t=0:10$ and i want to sample it with ...
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### why we use time step only in continuous convolution in MATLAB? But not in discrete convolution?

I am studying convolution from book of alex palamides but i am confused because he uses time step(in this case 0.01) in his code for continuous convolution as shown highlighted in attached photo but ...
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### Usefulness of Matched $z$ transform Method

I'm aware that the matched $z$ transform method maps between the continuous $s$ plane and the discrete/digital $z$ plane but my question is - when would this be necessary? Why would we need to convert ...
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### explanation of Hybrid systems?

I want to study Detailed explanation of hybrid systems?Which incorporate both continuous and discrete time signals & systems? for example In which a continuous-time input signal is transformed ...
109 views

### negative value of signals

can we say there is no sound produced when the amplitude is 0? if yes what can we say when the amplitude is negative?
25 views

### Continuous-time RNN and Shannon sampling theorem

The most-used discrete-time RNN equations used in Deep Learning these days are those of Elman: I have seen two very different continuous-time version of these, with different justifications. The most ...
68 views

### Are the error probability of orthogonal signal and on/off signal the same?

I have to write the error probability of orthogonal signal and on/off signal,and now i have finished the error probability of on/off signal,but i don't know how to write the code about error ...
32 views

### Time Setting of $z$ and Laplace Transforms

I'm aware that the z-transform and the Laplace Transform have an analogous relationship but I want to be doubly-sure that the z-transform only works in discrete-time and that the Laplace transform ...
85 views

### Confused in difference between sequence versus signal?

I am learning basics of signals and systems with MATLAB If i create a vector in matlab such that x=[ 2 5 10 20], will it be considered a sequence or a signal? As ...
176 views

### Detect the Beginning and Ending of a Signal

I have a signal that looks more or less like square wave signal with different phases (Like in the picture below). However, the signal fluctuates a lot, we can see in the image below: At first, I ...
47 views

### Consider the integrator and check for time invariance

I'm trying to check the following system for for time-invariance. $$y(t) = \int_0^t x(\lambda) d\lambda$$ Please explain me why it is time-invariant.
109 views

### Confusion in linearity?

I am studying linear systems from the book "Signals and Systems Laboratory with MATLAB". I have performed an example on MATLAB myself in this regard. Code is as follow: ...
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### Using MATLAB to plot the input and the magnitude spectrum of the signal

I have an aperiodic signal $v_{out} = e^{-t} u(t)$ (real exponential signal) from discharging capacitor. I was trying to plot using MATLAB 15 seconds of this signal in time domain? I am thinking how ...
31 views

### how can I know this system is Time invarient?

y(t) = 0 (t<0); x(t) + x(t-2) (t>=0); y(t) = 0 (x(t) < 0); x(t) - x(t-2) (x(t) >= 0); y[n] = x[n] (n>=1)...
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### Can anyone please describe the relation between linear convolution and circular convolution? [duplicate]

It would be great if anyone could help. I am not able to find any relation amongst them, to me they are different things altogether.
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### Is there any python code for applying a-law/mu-law on 3D numpy array?

I have 3D numpy array of probabilities between [0,1], I need to emphasize on some area with lower probabilities. I was suggested to apply a-law and mu-law. I am wondering if there is python library/...
31 views

### How to remove varying noise from strain data in MATLAB

I'm very new to signal processing. I have some data measured over time at 800 Hz. I'm interested in the high frequency signals. You can easily identify them in the image below (in this case, 3 signals)...
49 views

### Extracting signal from data using Otsu thresholding in MATLAB?

I am very new to signal processing. I am trying to extract a signal from my data using otsu threholding but it's not fully accurate. In this case I know that there is going to be a single signal in ...
101 views

### How to identify the beginning and the end of a signal using MATLAB

I have multiple signals as shown in this image. I'd like automatically detect time for the earliest detection of the signal (approx 0.7e4 in S1-B3-B (orange)) and last detected occurrence of the ...
45 views

### Area under waveform in t-domain including 2 delta functions

question: my attempt: $(a)$ $\displaystyle\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(t) dt=2 u (t)+r(t)-r(t-T)+Ku(t-T)$ then we draw it's diagram and found it was unbounded so,we doubt how area can be zero for any ...
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### How would I find the function given the magnitude plot and the phase response?

I'm wondering how I'd find the Fourier Transform X(jw) given the following information: My understanding is that the expression for the continuous time fourier transform (CTFT) is magnitude(CTFT)exp(...
30 views

### Processing using Matlab

I'm new to Matlab.As a beginner, I want to work on few signals which are used in day today life and extract useful information through it. Can someone please help me from where I could start or share ...
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### Reason of effect of continuity and discreteness on periodicity of signal?

We know that a sine signal in continuous time is a periodic signal with a period $2\pi$ whereas the same sine signal in discrete time is aperiodic. My question is how changing just a type of signal (...
53 views

### response of LTI system to a Random Input Signal

what is LTI filter? what is the output when x(t) is input? let x(t) be the input signal to the system and y(t) denote the output signal. The output of the system may be expressed in terms of ...
192 views

### A question on Fourier Series and the frequency of the sinusoids

On studying about Fourier series, I encountered 2 doubts: How is it that a non-periodic function has a Fourier series? When expressing a periodic function as summation of sinusoids, why is the ...
98 views

### How does real-time signal processing work when the signal we deal with is assumed to be known for all times?

One thing that never sat right with me after my signal processing course is that in order to do signal processing, we must know the entire signal $x(t)$. For instance, I cannot take the Fourier or Z ...
141 views

### DC value of $x(t)=\frac{1}{t}$

Is it possible to calculate the DC value of signals with undefinable area? More specificaly, in the case of $x(t)=\frac{1}{t}$. $\int\limits_{-\infty}^\infty\frac1t \, \mathrm dt$ does not converge. ...
23 views

### How does discrete spectral moment relate to continuous spectral moment?

It is said in discrete/digital signal processing that $r$th spectral moment of signal $x[n]$ is defined as: $$\sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty}n^r x[n]$$ But how does this relate to usual continuous $r$th ...
110 views

### Effective Nyquist frequency / signal resolution for overlapping time averaged signal samples

Say that I have a continuous signal. If I sample the signal at sampling rate f_sample, then the highest signal frequency that I can resolve without worrying about ...
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### Is there such a thing as a continuous phase BPSK?

My knowledge of signals and signal processing is limited, so I apologize in advance for my naïve and possibly confusing question. In the case of BFSK, the frequencies are altered to represent the ...
85 views

### Is there an example of an infinite signal? [closed]

In the real world, Is there an example of an infinite signal?
201 views

### Fourier Series Representation of Continuous-Time Periodic Signals [closed]

As a novice in signal processing, I have been going through Signals & Systems by Oppenheim to try and understand how continuous time periodic signals are represented by Fourier series coefficients....
177 views

### How can I get the continuous-time transfer function coefficients (or poles and zeros) from the corresponding discrete-time TF and vice versa?

Let's say I have a continuous time transfer function which I know its numerator coefficients $(B^c = [b^c_m, ..., b^c_1, b^c_0])$ and denominator coefficients $(A^c = [a^c_m, ..., a^c_1, a^c_0])$. ...
212 views

### Can a Fourier Transform exist even if the j$\omega$ axis is not in the Region of Convergence in it's Laplace Transform

A couple of confusions have been occurred. The Signal I'm considering is f(t) = sin(t)*u(t) Fourier Transform of it can be derived. $-i \pi (\delta (\omega -1)-\delta (\omega +1))$ According to my ...
49 views

### Simple problem regarding rectangular pulse shifting

So i have the following rectangular pulse: $$h(t)=\begin{cases} 1 & 0<t< T \\ 0 & \text{otherwise} \end{cases}$$ Now, i am supposed to create $h(T-t)$, and the ...
55 views

### Bandwidth of the Derivative of a Message [duplicate]

If I have a message signal $m(t)$ and it has a bandwidth $B$. I know that the bandwidth of $m^N(t)$ is $NB$. But what is the bandwidth of $\frac{d m(t)}{dt}$? Thanks!
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### Quite confused with Fourier Analysis results

So I'm meant to show how the DFT can find the frequencies, and respective amplitudes, associated to some data. And I have this data set from the curve $$f(t) = 1 + 2\cos(2\pi t) + 4\cos(4\pi t)$$ ...