Questions tagged [continuous-signals]

A continuous signal or a continuous-time signal is a varying quantity (a signal) whose domain, which is often time, is a continuum.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
33
votes
6answers
46k views

The difference between convolution and cross-correlation from a signal-analysis point of view

I am trying to understand the difference between convolution to cross-correlation. I have read an understood This answer. I also understand the picture below. But, in terms of signal processing, (a ...
26
votes
2answers
4k views

Are there alternatives to the bilinear transform?

When designing a digital filter based on an analog filter we usually use the bilinear transform. To approximate a discrete transfer function $D_a(z)$ from analog (continuous) transfer function $A(s)$ ...
16
votes
3answers
25k views

How poles are related to frequency response

I have recently fallen into fallacy, considering pole s=1 as there is infinite response at frequency 1. Yet, response was only 1. Now, can you derive the frequency response, given the poles? ...
14
votes
2answers
10k views

Using continuous verses discrete wavelet transform in digital applications

I am familiar with much of the mathematical background behind wavelets. However when implementing algorithms on a computer with wavelets I am less certain about whether I should be using continuous or ...
12
votes
2answers
10k views

What are advantages of having higher sampling rate of a signal?

Being a non signal processing science student I have limited understanding of the concepts. I have a continuous periodic bearing faulty signal (with time amplitudes) which are sampled at $12\textrm{ ...
11
votes
12answers
31k views

Deconvolution of 1D Signals Blurred by a Gaussian Kernel

I have convolved a random signal with a a Gaussian and added noise (Poisson noise in this case) to generate a noisy signal. Now I would like to deconvolve this noisy signal to extract the original ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Fourier Transform Identities

We know the below, $$ \mathscr{F}\big\{x(t)\big\}=X(f) \tag{1} $$ $$ \mathscr{F}\big\{x(-t)\big\}=X(-f) \tag{2} $$ $$ \mathscr{F}\big\{x^*(t)\big\}=X^*(-f) \tag{3} $$ Now, if for some signal $$ x(-...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

Why doesn't sampling a periodic continuous-time signal yield a periodic discrete-time signal?

I have been studying signals and systems lately and I have came across the following claim: The uniform sampling of a periodic continuous-time signal may not be periodic! Can someone please ...
9
votes
5answers
5k views

Why do linear systems show sinusoidal fidelity?

I am looking for a proof for sinusoidal fidelity. In DSP we study a lot about linear systems. Linear systems are homogenous and additive. One more condition it satisifies is that if a signal is a sine ...
9
votes
3answers
18k views

Alias frequency Formula

I'm taking a multimedia systems class in my MSc Computer Science, and I'm having some trouble understanding the formula for the alias frequency - this could stem from my misunderstanding of the alias ...
8
votes
2answers
20k views

Deriving the Fourier transform of cosine and sine

In this answer, Jim Clay writes: ... use the fact that $\mathcal F\{\cos(x)\} = \frac{\delta(w - 1) + \delta(w + 1)}{2}$ ... The expression above is not too different from $\mathcal F\{{\cos(2\pi ...
8
votes
2answers
232 views

Does the inverse-CTFT exist for a dirac delta?

Does the inverse continuous time Fourier transform exist for a Dirac delta (A single causal/non-causal spike)?
7
votes
7answers
546 views

Intuition behind commutativity of convolution in LTI systems

Why is convolution commutative, as it seems to treat two signals in a different way in an LTI system? If you imagine $y[n] = x[n] \star h[n]$ with $x[n]$ being an input signal and $h[n]$ being the ...
7
votes
2answers
818 views

determine two signals with a scale factor

Suppose I have 2 signals from function $f_1(x)$ and $f_2(x)$, respectively, and assume the sampling rate is above Nyquist frequency, so we can restore the underlying functions $f_1(x)$ and $f_2(x)$. ...
7
votes
1answer
3k views

eigen values and eigen vectors of signal

What does the Eigen values and Eigen vector of a signal or function represent? What is its physical significance? I know about basis vectors of a signal which constitute the orthogonal planes where ...
7
votes
1answer
237 views

Why would I want to define a modulation index for each tone (DSB-FC)?

So the exercise is basically a signal $f(t)$ that is going to modulate the carrier $A\cos(\omega_ct)$ using a modulation index of $m=1$. I have to find $A$ and the power of the modulated signal: $$ f(...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Mathematically Inclined Signal and Systems / Signal Processing Book Recommendations

I'm an electronics engineering student with high inclination to analysis and pure mathematics. I was just wondering if there was any book ( or any resource ) that treats signal and systems and signal ...
6
votes
1answer
317 views

How to derive $r(t) = c(t) \circledast \frac{1}{2} h_b(t, \tau)$?

Consider a linear time-variant channel. The transmitted signal is $x(t)$, the channel impulse response is $h(t, \tau)$, and the received signal is $y(t)$. Then $$ y(t) = \int_{-\infty}^\infty x(\tau) ...
5
votes
5answers
3k views

Effects of linear interpolation of a time series on its frequency spectrum

Situation In order to synchonisize different time series i have to apply linear interpolation on them. After the interpolation and synchronization the signal is transferred into its frequency domain ...
5
votes
2answers
356 views

why total energy of a finite duration continuous signal becomes infinite after sampling

If I have a continuous-time energy signal and multiply it with an impulse train, the frequency domain representation has infinite replicas. The total energy if we sum them up becomes infinite. What ...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

When convolving two functions that are constants in a region and 0 everywhere else, where does the integration start?

Heads up, this is for homework. I never took a signals and systems course, so I'm behind on this stuff. I want to compute the convolution of two rectangular regions. I know the standard equation ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

Continuous Time Signal and Discrete Time Signal - Connection Between Periodicity and Discretness

I know that all periodic continuous time signal have discrete spectral representations, but are all discrete spectral representations periodic in continuous time? Also, can all periodic signals be ...
5
votes
1answer
740 views

Correct method for drawing waveforms

I need to draw waveforms for biometric data like ECG and EEG signals. When I have more samples than pixels at the X-axis, I need to draw a vertical line between the MIN and MAX sample-value for that ...
4
votes
4answers
729 views

Is Fourier series a sampled version of Fourier transform?

I recently learned about dtft and how dft/dfs is the sampled version of dtft. I was wondering if Fourier series is also obtainable by sampling Fourier transform? I am a noob in the subject so sorry if ...
4
votes
3answers
12k views

For an LTI system, why does the Fourier transform of the impulse response give the frequency response?

I know that for a given system, the Fourier transform of its impulse response gives its frequency response. I want to find where this property comes from, but haven't been able to find if it's a ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

What is the opposite of sampling called?

We call the conversion from a continuous time signal $f(t)$ to a discrete time signal $f_s[k]$ "sampling". Is there a name for the reverse operation, i.e. creating a continuous time signal from a ...
4
votes
2answers
6k views

How does shift and scaling inside of a function affect its Fourier Transform?

The properties aren't entirely clear to me, sorry for the basic question. I know the Fourier Transform of one function. Say, $\text{rect}(x,y) \Leftrightarrow \frac{\sin \pi u}{\pi u} \frac{\sin \...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the intuition behind convolution? [duplicate]

I have been using convolution for finding outputs of various systems .I know how to use it.But I still don't know what does convolution exactly means? how one can define convolution ?
4
votes
2answers
4k views

Main differences to take into account between continuous and discrete time signals

I started studying DSP and the first things that came out were the differences between continuous and discrete time signals. So, I was wondering if I understood well these concepts before I keep going ...
4
votes
3answers
428 views

How to Prove a System Is Invertible?

what i know is that for a system to be invertibel it should be one-one , but I am confused that if i am given a transfer function of a LTI system how can I prove or verify if it is invertible. ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

Filter coefficients for colored noise Voss Algorithm

If I use a generic filter for generating colored noise like pink,brown,white then how do I modify this statement and how do I know what are the coefficients to be used in AR model for different noise....
4
votes
2answers
868 views

Example of an LTI system with complex impulse response

In general, I know that the impulse response $h(t)$ of an LTI system can be complex. However, all of physically realizable, useful systems I've come across have purely real impulse responses. I did a ...
4
votes
2answers
995 views

What should the amplitude be when plotting 1-sided Amplitude Spectrum?

I have a continuous signal x(t) such that $x(t)=12cos(6\pi t)+6cos(24\pi t)+3cos(30 \pi t)$ and is asked to sketch a 1-sided Amplitude Spectrum of the signal x(t) if sampled above the minimum ...
4
votes
1answer
317 views

“chirp” with arbitrary period

Say you have a linear chirp, which is a bit like a sinusoid with a gradually increasing period, but instead of the linearly increasing period, could you pick an arbitrary value, like the red line in ...
4
votes
2answers
7k views

What are Autoregressive Coefficients?

Can anyone explain what are Autoregressive Coefficients? What is their meaning that is. Consider a method: ...
4
votes
2answers
525 views

Deriving the integration property of the Fourier Transform

I want to derive the property of the Fourier Transform that states that if $X(j\omega) = \mathcal{F} (x(t))$ then $$\mathcal{F} \left( \int_{-\infty}^{t} x(\tau) \mathrm{d} \tau \right) = \frac{1}{j\...
4
votes
1answer
465 views

3D wiggle plot for an analytic signal: Heyser corkscrew/spiral

Just reading The Analytic Impulse, A. Duncan, 1988, I met the name "Heyser corkscrew" for the first time in my DSP life, for a 3D display of a cisoid or complex exponential $e^{i\omega }$ (often ...
4
votes
3answers
816 views

creating a seamless signal / loop using interpolation

I'm trying to create a seamless loop using a "non-periodic" signal using interpolation to smooth out the beginning and the end but I'm still getting a click at the beginning when it loops and I listen ...
4
votes
2answers
886 views

Continuous-time mathematical formula for deconvolution filters

I have an elementary function $p:\mathbb{R}^2\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ which (locally) represents an image. It's a polynomial, and its the result of the following 2D convolution: $$p=f\star G\star \...
3
votes
3answers
92 views

How is $\delta(at+b)=\frac{1}{|a|}\delta(t+b/a)$?

This result has been used in the second last line of the pic. I don't know why it's true. Both functions are zero for $t$ not equal to $-b/a$. But at $t=-b/a$, a scaling factor $1/|a|$ has been ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

How to do continuous signal processing (i.e without windowing)?

I'm working in speech recognition research, and I wonder if there is a way to analyse sound just like how ears do (i.e. without windowing), so for example to take some feature continuously with an ...
3
votes
1answer
702 views

Sinusoid with increasing frequency

How would you describe this signal? It's like a sinusoid but as if its frequency was constantly increasing: could you write down a mathematical description? Thanks. And no, this is not homework...
3
votes
2answers
749 views

Special case: Band-limited in time domain and band-limited in frequency domain

I know except for some special cases, aliasing is unavoidable. Assume we time-limit a function, $f(t)$, so that it is zero outside an interval say $[0,T]$ to form $y(t)$. Then, in the frequency domain,...
3
votes
2answers
4k views

Detecting outliers/noise from sensor data

I am trying to detect outliers/noise as indicated on the diagram below from sensor data. Can anyone advice how to go about it? I can only do this in python, so are there libraries in python that I can ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Analog signal can be discrete time?

I am new to this site and field too.I always thought analog is continuous and digital signal is discrete. I read this today and got confused about analog signal Analog can be continuous time(CT) ...
3
votes
2answers
10k views

What is the difference between a one dimensional and a two dimensional signal?

If a signal depends on only one variable then we call it one dimensional, and if a signal depends on two variable we call it a two dimensional signal. But when we represent an one dimensional signal, ...
3
votes
2answers
83 views

whether the system is linear or not for the given problem

Given the system: $$y(t)=x(t+1)+x(t−1)$$ is the system linear? For a system to be a linear first it should satisfy zero input and zero output. How can we calculate output at 0 input if the system ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Determining if the given system is LTI

Problem Given the compound system below, with the input $x(t)=\operatorname{sinc(t)}$, the output of A is $y(t)=\operatorname{sinc(2t)}$ and the output of B is $z(t)=\operatorname{sinc(t)}$, ...
3
votes
4answers
1k views

Relation between curve fitting and filtering

Before I ask the question: I am from mechanical background and would appreciate a detailed answer. Generally, for automobiles, I am trying to understand the following: Given, say $1\;\mathrm{sec}$ ...
3
votes
1answer
159 views

signals comparison metrics

Am new to signal processing and was wondering when given two signals, what are the widely used statistical analysis methods to understand the relationship between them?