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Questions tagged [continuous-signals]

A continuous signal or a continuous-time signal is a varying quantity (a signal) whose domain, which is often time, is a continuum.

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does extension to reals of an arbitrary signal with a zero tail eventually cross a threshold

Suppose I have a sampled signal $S(x) :=\space [ \space ..., X_{-2}, \space X_{-1}, \space 0, \space 0, \space 0, \space 0, \space ... \space ]$ where $\{X\}_{n}$ is bounded by $\pm1$ when n is a ...
micsthepick's user avatar
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Sinc droop in a simple sampling mixer

This question is about the conceptual interpretation of a track-and-hold mixing operation implemented conceptually below, where an output $y(t)$ tracks an input $x(t)$ for half of a period $T_{LO}$ ...
Halleff's user avatar
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Statement on detectability based on relative height of abs max of spectrum

I have $2$ signals $s(t)$, $z(t)$ with the same energy $E(|s(t)|^2)=E(|z(t)|^2)=1$. However, the maxima of the signal spectra obtained with Fourier transforms verify: $\max(|S(f)|^2) \leq \max(|Z(f)|^...
user72680's user avatar
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GNU radio create custom source

I want to implement the signal $$x(t)=4\cos2t+5\sin30t+5$$ $$0<=t<1$$ GNU Radio has source blocks: but the waveform is continuous over time,I want it to start at $t=0$ and end at $t=1$. What ...
ElectronicsBeginner's user avatar
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Discontinuous functions convolution

Suppose we have these function: I am trying to find their convolution.Since they are both discontinuous when you use the sliding window technique to find the convolution , depending on where t is the ...
Root Groves's user avatar
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54 views

Autocorrelation function of a Gaussian random signal

Im a beginner at signal processing and I've gotten the following question in an exercise: "Write down the equation for a Gaussian probability density distribution and relate the different ...
mads grønbeck's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
68 views

Finding the impulse response of an c.t LTI system through the step response

Say we have a continuous LTI system of which we know the analytical expression of its step response. Let's call it $y_{\text{step}}(t)$. Having $y_{\text{step}}(t)$ (and therefore also $Y_{\text{step}}...
Nyquist-er's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Impulse response of a causal LTI system without using Laplace transform

I have this differential equation that models a causal LTI system: $$ \ddot{v}(t) - \dot{v}(t) - 2v(t) = \ddot{u}(t) + 2\dot{u}(t) + u(t) $$ I was asked to find the impulse response both by using ...
Lorenzo's user avatar
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Fourier transform processing of iq data

I want to perform fourier transform on the iq data that is taken from spectrum analyzer. The purpose is to estimate phase noise from iq data.
Komal's user avatar
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Smoothing sensor signal with discontinuities on DSP for obtaining signal derivative

I am trying to implement PID control on a sensor signal that has many discontinuities in it. Due to these discontinuities, the differentiated signal does not provide a meaningful or useful signal I ...
Mr Phase Locked Loop's user avatar
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Doubt on LTI systems (Zero input-Zero Output)

So, I have a problem where the input and output of a system are given : \begin{align} x(t) &= \sin(10t) \\ y(t) &=5\cos(10t+\frac{\pi}{6}) \end{align} So, I need to determine whether this ...
Naveen's user avatar
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How to design a system that stretches input by factor of 2?

In general, How do we design a system that takes input x(t) and outputs x(t/2)? I know that if system outputs x(t/2) then the frequency domain of output signal has the form X(2f). But what should be ...
user133933's user avatar
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0 answers
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Implementing signal processing techniques for consistent RSSI signal reception

I've tried to optimize the LoRa setup using Arduino IDE libraries to ensure accurate or acceptable RSSI measurements and for distance estimation between multiple nodes and a master in an outdoor ...
Ausen's user avatar
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Signal plotting on a paper

I needed help in plotting this in a paper, I have 2 signals: x(t) = 4 Tri ((t + T) / 2T) x(t) = sin((2 pi t)/ T).rect((t - 3T) / 2T) I have added my solutions to these signals in the attached image, ...
Wireshark's user avatar
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How do i know which operations transformed a signal?

I am doing an undergrad assignment and one of the exercises is as follows: Given the following signal $x(t)$: and another signal $y(t)$ which was transformed from $x(t)$: Describe $y(t)$ in function ...
heresthebuzz's user avatar
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Multiplication of function with Dirac impulses: sketch signal

I should sketch the signal below: I think I should use delta dirac function sampling theorem but I don't know how in this special case I know that $x(t)δ(t-t_{0})=x(t_{0})δ(t-t_{0})$ but I don't have ...
Bored_student's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
91 views

OFDM: From DFT to time-continuous signal

I try to write down the equations that show how constellation symbols (PSK, QAM etc.) are modulated into a time-continuous signal. I read the articles referenced at the end. However, I am still stuck ...
Cornelius's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
90 views

Orthogonal signals basics [closed]

Suppose we have 2 orthogonal signals $x_{1}(t)$ and $x_{2}(t)$ and we add them up. Can we always say that the resulting signal will be of this form: $$x_{3}(t)=x_{1}(t)+jx_{2}(t)$$ ? If that is true ...
Root Groves's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
106 views

Shot noise at an imaging system - is it white?

Shot noise is generally a white noise. For an imaging system based on detectors the shot noise variance that scalers linearly with flux and time (details here and here): $$\sigma^2=I\cdot QE\cdot\...
Yair M's user avatar
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When discretizing a stochastic signal , are there random variables independent of those that follow in time and dependent on previous ones in time?

$X(t)$ is a stochastic process defined on the time interval $(0, T)$. Discretizing the time interval one specify the time instants $t_0=0 < t_1 < t_2,\cdots,< t_{n-1} < t_n = T$. A random ...
Adrian Daniliuc's user avatar
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I want to transmit a CW signal using SDR could be pluto or hackrf but I haven't used any one of them can anyone help me

I am using HackRF or Pluto SDR for transmission of a CW signal, after reading the documentation of the HackRF one SDR I found out that it transmits data in only 8-bit signed quadrature samples. Now I ...
Raj Patil's user avatar
1 vote
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Calculation of a position from the angles of arrival

For locating a target by TDOA (Time Difference Of Arrival) with $3$ stations we have the Chan method which gives an exact solution of the position. I keep the $3$ stations but instead of measuring the ...
user70974's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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error on angle of arrival

I have $2$ sensors allowing me to measure angles of arrival. These sensors are a distance $d$ ($d \simeq 10$ m) apart and the target to be located is at a distance $R$ with $d<<R$. In the ...
user70812's user avatar
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I am trying to plot range of a target in a FMCW radar

I am working on the simulation of FMCW radar, and I am trying to figure out how to plot the target range using the impulse response of the beat signal. I have successfully generated the chirps and the ...
Raj Patil's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
38 views

Discontinuities in the frequency domain

I'm trying to implement a waveform such the frequency will look like this - $f(t)=f_0+\left(f_1-f_0\right) e^{\frac{\left(t \pm \delta_t / 2\right)^2}{2 \sigma^2}}$ To do so, I calculate it like this -...
Yarden Sharabi's user avatar
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1 answer
79 views

Calculate power of a signal

The task is to calculate power of signal below: $$ x(t)=\sum^{\infty }_{k=-\infty }(t-k)[u(t-k)-u(t-k-1)]$$ The answer is 0.33 but I don't know how to calculate this even though I applied the formula, ...
nicole's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
213 views

A necessary condition for the signal energy be finite by Lathi

In the book Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems by B.P. Lathi and Z. Ding, on page 21, the authors wrote: "A necessary condition for the energy to be finite is that the signal ...
P.S. Dester's user avatar
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In wireless communication, is pulse shaping applied to each BPSK signal before OFDM is used, or not?

I have read a number of posts that seem to ask this question but have not been able to find a definitive answer. Here goes... I understand that BPSK with NO pulse shaping would produce a signal in ...
Drummy's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
452 views

How to simulate multiple targets in FMCW radar simulation in python?

I have simulated a FMCW radar for a single stationary target, now the next step in my project is to simulate multiple moving targets. For this I had thought of using doppler shift to show a difference ...
Raj Patil's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
31 views

Applying Blahut-Arimoto Algorithm for AWGN Channels Capacity Calculation with Cost

I am exploring the Blahut-Arimoto algorithm (or any numerical method) for channel capacity calculations, particularly for continuous channels. I understand its application in discrete scenarios, but I ...
Alireza Ghazavi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
77 views

Power Spectral Density and Total Power Calculation for Signal

I am currently working on analyzing a signal with the autocorrelation function given by: $$R(\tau) = 100 \cos( 10000\pi\tau) (Λ(2000\tau))^2$$ I need assistance in plotting the power spectral density ...
Javad Ibrahimli's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
149 views

Continuous-time convolution of signals with negative amplitudes

While preparing for a mid-term exam, I encountered negative amplitudes for the first time while convolving two signals. I've already solved the problem, but my result and results from others conflict ...
kesetovic's user avatar
  • 113
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1 answer
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Energy and power of time-continous signal $x(t)=t$?

Preparing for my exams, I stumbled upon this particular problem. I tried to calculate it using following formulae: $$ E = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}|t|^2dt $$ Dividing it into two cases because of the ...
kesetovic's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
104 views

For unit step $g(t) = u(t)$, why does $G(z) = \frac{z}{1-z}$, whereas $G(s) = \frac{1}{s}$?

Edit: The source of my confusion is over the existence of multiple s-z mappings. After researching these mappings and where they came from, I couldn't find why $z=e^{sT}$ can be ignored and replaced ...
ThePhysicsOverthinker's user avatar
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2 answers
91 views

Alternative way to find fourier transform

Let $$x(t) = A \text{rect}_T({t-\tau})$$I calculated its fourier transform through the direct way: $$X(\omega) = Ae^{-i\omega \tau} \int_{-T/2}^{T/2} e^{-i \omega t} dt = Ae^{-i\omega \tau} \frac{\sin(...
MOHAMED SALHI's user avatar
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1 answer
249 views

Magnitude and phase spectrum of a periodic signal

Let the following T-periodic signal : I found that $$ x(t) = \frac{A \cdot t}{T} \qquad 0 \le t < T $$ and its Fourier series is : $$ x(t) = \frac{A}{2} - \frac{A}{\pi} \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{\...
MOHAMED SALHI's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
119 views

Are complex exponentials the only eigenfunction for arbitrary LTI systems?

After reading a few posts, like this. I know that arbitrary LTI systems always have complex exponential eigenfunctions. And that for specific LTI systems you can also have other types of ...
roobee's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
335 views

Can the total energy of a signal diverge while its average power converges to zero?

If the integral used to calculate the total energy for a continuous time real signal converges, its average power is equal to zero. But could the average power still equal zero if the total energy ...
keska_learning's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
35 views

Checking Invertibility of continuous-time system

While solving a problem, there is a problem that I don't understand. $$ Y(t) = \{X(t)\}^3 $$ A system has a response that is the cube of its excitation.It is a problem of determining the Invertibility ...
quele's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why a windowed signal is considered to evaluate the Power Spectral Density?

Let's consider a real function of time $x(t)$ being a Fourier-transformable signal. The synthesis equation states that: $$x(t)=∫_{-∞}^{+∞}X(f)⋅e^{2πjft} df $$ Meaning: $x(t)$ can be seen as the sum of ...
Kinka-Byo's user avatar
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1 answer
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what am i not doing right while using squarewaves?

I have been applying square waves at 40hz and 10 volts via a function generator amplified by a power amplifier by 2 times(2A) on a 6mm steel specimen. My signals captured from the AE sensor are not ...
Wasil Riaz's user avatar
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0 answers
44 views

What am i doing wrong?

How do I remove the noise (long vertical lines) from signal? I am applying AC voltage via function generator which is amplified by the power amplifier to a 6mm thick steel specimen. The signals are ...
Wasil Riaz's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
279 views

Proving that the autocorrelation of a signal is the convolution with its time-reversed complex conjugate

I need to prove the property $$f(x)⊕f(x)=f(x)⊗f^*(-x)$$ That is the autocorrelation of a function is the convolution with its time-reversed complex conjugate. I have constructed most of the proof but ...
requiemman's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
59 views

Sinus Pattern analysis

i have 1000 data which range between 50 and 180 ( heart BPM data in a day) how can i measure its similarity to a Sinus pattern? for example, for 20th recorded data (for example it is 60BPM), evaluate ...
Hamidreza Abdollahi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
447 views

Does bandwidth include negative frequencies?

I've seen countless definitions of bandwidth that disregard negative frequencies. Is that done due to the symmetrical nature of a certain signal eg. a cosine or due to the inherent lack of meaning ...
Moonlight's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
123 views

Why do complex signals and their real world equivalents have different measurements of power?

My understanding is that the relationship between complex signals and real signals is such that for some complex signal $f(t) = s(t) \cdot e^{j2\pi f_c}$, the actual broadcast signal sent through the ...
Idunnoanymore's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

Incorrect epoch labelling

I am processing an EEG signal acquired by showing 10 image of each of 40 classes. I want to label the signals converted to epochs to their corresponding class labels. The ...
madiha Rehman's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
214 views

How do I reduce a block diagram with just a line as a feedback loop, I dont get how it adds K to the denominator

How do I reduce a block diagram with just a line as a feedback loop, I dont get how it adds K to the denominator. The bottom equation is supposed to be the answer.
Oliver Becquart's user avatar
5 votes
4 answers
655 views

What Is Continuous White Noise in The Context of Signal Processing and Broadly

How can one define Continuous White Noise in a coherent way? Is there a way to derive it Mathematically? Specifically, is there a way to define it which will works as the model in Signal Processing ...
Royi's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
217 views

Frequency domain derivation of Hilbert transform of $\cos(\omega t)$

I'm reading "Understanding Digital Signal Processing, 3rd Edition" by Richard Lyons. Chapter 9 derives Hilbert transform impulse response by defining it in frequency domain first and then ...
Aleksander Alekseev's user avatar

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