Questions tagged [continuous-signals]

A continuous signal or a continuous-time signal is a varying quantity (a signal) whose domain, which is often time, is a continuum.

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Signal Header:Physical Min is not less than Physical Max- after opening EDF file on the viewer

Whenever I open an EDF file on the Case Western Research University's EDF Viewer Application, I get a Scaling Warning-"Signal Header:Physical Min is not less than the Physical Max ". I am reading ...
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31 views

What is the effect on Hilbert transform of signal after multiplication by sinusoid?

Question : Find Hilbert transform of $[u(t-a)-u(t-b)]\cos2\pi f_{0}t\\\\$ such that $\\0<a<b$ my attempt: we know Hilbert transform of $[u(t-a)-u(t-b)]\xrightarrow{\mathcal H} \dfrac{1}{\pi}\...
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1answer
11 views

Continuous time double exponential filtering in state space form?

I'm trying to determine the continuous time formulation of the double exponential filter so that I can adapt it more flexibly for my particular problem. Typically, this model is expressed as a pair ...
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PSD of Quantization noise [closed]

Psd of Quantization noise Psd of Granular noise Are above PSDs correct
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25 views

Bandwidth of Time Division Multiplexing

Why is it said that bandwidth of output of a TDM transmitter is half of Sum of individual sampling frequencies.Is their a mathematical proof. I know that sampling frequency should be greater then ...
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2answers
43 views

How is frequency defined for a periodic signal?

For sinsusoids, frequency is $2\pi/T$, but for general periodic signals, how is frequency defined? Is it $1/T$ or $2\pi/T$? ($T$ is the fundamental period of the signal)
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2answers
51 views

PSD of modulated signal

I know this question has been previously asked just saw it and tried to do myself but reaching an expression which is different from expression of PSD which I remember for modulated signal Actual ...
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24 views

Low pass representation of Bandpass Random process

Can A WSS random process with non-zero mean be also represented in such form.
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33 views

How to Derive Rayleigh distribution using transformation formula

Consider a complex random variable $Z=X+\jmath Y$, where the probability density function of $X$ and $Y$ are given by $$p(x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi\sigma^2}} {\rm e}^{-\frac{x^2}{2\sigma^2}}\quad\mbox{...
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3answers
79 views

Confusion in AC and DC signals

I have certain doubts in the fundamentals of AC and DC signals. Most of the time, we deal with DC signals in the form of batteries, whose waveform is a constant signal with peak as 1.5v However, i ...
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20 views

Independence of ergodic process [closed]

I am given two random process x and y out of which x is considered to be ergodic and its probability distribution function is not given while y is considered to be non ergodic and its probability ...
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Ergodic and non ergodic process [closed]

If I am given two random process (say x and y) are ergodic and their PDF is not given and the random process are periodic in time with period T1,T2 then xy will be periodic in time with period T4=LCM {...
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2answers
44 views

Independence of Functions of random Variable

Consider I am given two functions of one random variable each for example x=cos(at),y=rect(bt) where a and b are random variables.And I am given Probability density function for a and b then if I am ...
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Notch filtering minimizing artifacts in signal

I have to notch filter the following signal As you can see it is a signal with really high amplitude.And this causes me a lot of problems. I've designed a bandstop filter (46-55 Hz).The MATLAB code ...
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1answer
25 views

Diode demodulation for AM

What is the capacitor and resistance at output of LPF meant for in the document it was mentioned that it is DC blocker I don't get it can't message contain DC value.
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1answer
70 views

Is convolution distributive over multiplication?

Is there any formula or expansion for $$a(t)*[b(t) \cdot c(t)]$$ $$a(t) \cdot[b(t)*c(t)]$$ where $*$ denotes the convolution? By expansion I mean something like $a(t)\cdot[b(t)+c(t)]=a(t)b(t)+a(t)...
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Envelope detector for AM signals

How or what are the constraints for deciding factors of envelope detector for AM As far as I know that charging time of capacitor should be below 20T where T is periodic time of carrier and ...
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2answers
60 views

Digital Equations problem - The fundamental ones that everyone should know

I think I am looking at conflicting equations from a few sources, or maybe I just dont understand it. But please can someone help me with these fundamental equations that everyone should know $ \...
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How to find fundamental frequency of two signals?

I am facing difficulty with finding fundamental frequency of signals I mean by fundamental frequency=(1/Time period) Correct me if I am wrong consider two continuous time signals with Time period ...
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How to Prove a System Is Invertible?

what i know is that for a system to be invertibel it should be one-one , but I am confused that if i am given a transfer function of a LTI system how can I prove or verify if it is invertible. ...
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What is definition of cross correlation function?

I mean there are three different formulas for cross correlation that I have studied f and g are two functions whose correlation has to be found 1.For Energy signals 2.For Power signals 3.For ...
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1answer
31 views

Peak Detection on ECG signal

I've been working on a ECG signal collected during exercise through my chest mount heart rate monitor. My goal is to accurately detect the location of the R-wave; R-wave is the narrow peak similar to ...
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1answer
54 views

Discrete Kalman filter for a continuous system

The question is related to the implementation of a discrete kalman filter given a description of the system model in continuous time. I will give an example. Suppose we have a mass, spring and damper ...
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1answer
53 views

Computing response of LTI system in terms of its step response

I have solved a problem, Kindly help me in determing if I solved it correctly. I will post the question and my own working below. Problem My working
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1answer
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Why doesn't sampling a periodic continuous-time signal yield a periodic discrete-time signal?

I have been studying signals and systems lately and I have came across the following claim: The uniform sampling of a periodic continuous-time signal may not be periodic! Can someone please ...
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1answer
45 views

Conversion from continuous to sampled signal?

I am bit confused regarding sampling as i read different types of statements in different texts Forexample i have a continous time signal $x=sin(t)$ defined for $t=0:10$ and i want to sample it with ...
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why we use time step only in continuous convolution in MATLAB? But not in discrete convolution?

I am studying convolution from book of alex palamides but i am confused because he uses time step(in this case 0.01) in his code for continuous convolution as shown highlighted in attached photo but ...
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36 views

Usefulness of Matched $z$ transform Method

I'm aware that the matched $z$ transform method maps between the continuous $s$ plane and the discrete/digital $z$ plane but my question is - when would this be necessary? Why would we need to convert ...
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32 views

explanation of Hybrid systems?

I want to study Detailed explanation of hybrid systems?Which incorporate both continuous and discrete time signals & systems? for example In which a continuous-time input signal is transformed ...
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2answers
68 views

negative value of signals

can we say there is no sound produced when the amplitude is 0? if yes what can we say when the amplitude is negative?
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Continuous-time RNN and Shannon sampling theorem

The most-used discrete-time RNN equations used in Deep Learning these days are those of Elman: I have seen two very different continuous-time version of these, with different justifications. The most ...
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1answer
32 views

Are the error probability of orthogonal signal and on/off signal the same?

I have to write the error probability of orthogonal signal and on/off signal,and now i have finished the error probability of on/off signal,but i don't know how to write the code about error ...
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1answer
25 views

Time Setting of $z$ and Laplace Transforms

I'm aware that the z-transform and the Laplace Transform have an analogous relationship but I want to be doubly-sure that the z-transform only works in discrete-time and that the Laplace transform ...
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2answers
36 views

Confused in difference between sequence versus signal?

I am learning basics of signals and systems with MATLAB If i create a vector in matlab such that x=[ 2 5 10 20], will it be considered a sequence or a signal? As ...
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42 views

Detect the Beginning and Ending of a Signal

I have a signal that looks more or less like square wave signal with different phases (Like in the picture below). However, the signal fluctuates a lot, we can see in the image below: At first, I ...
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36 views

Consider the integrator and check for time invariance

I'm trying to check the following system for for time-invariance. $$ y(t) = \int_0^t x(\lambda) d\lambda$$ Please explain me why it is time-invariant.
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2answers
74 views

Confusion in linearity?

I am studying linear systems from the book "Signals and Systems Laboratory with MATLAB". I have performed an example on MATLAB myself in this regard. Code is as follow: ...
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24 views

Using MATLAB to plot the input and the magnitude spectrum of the signal

I have an aperiodic signal $v_{out} = e^{-t} u(t)$ (real exponential signal) from discharging capacitor. I was trying to plot using MATLAB 15 seconds of this signal in time domain? I am thinking how ...
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31 views

how can I know this system is Time invarient?

y(t) = 0 (t<0); x(t) + x(t-2) (t>=0); y(t) = 0 (x(t) < 0); x(t) - x(t-2) (x(t) >= 0); y[n] = x[n] (n>=1)...
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Can anyone please describe the relation between linear convolution and circular convolution? [duplicate]

It would be great if anyone could help. I am not able to find any relation amongst them, to me they are different things altogether.
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25 views

Is there any python code for applying a-law/mu-law on 3D numpy array?

I have 3D numpy array of probabilities between [0,1], I need to emphasize on some area with lower probabilities. I was suggested to apply a-law and mu-law. I am wondering if there is python library/...
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How to remove varying noise from strain data in MATLAB

I'm very new to signal processing. I have some data measured over time at 800 Hz. I'm interested in the high frequency signals. You can easily identify them in the image below (in this case, 3 signals)...
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21 views

Extracting signal from data using Otsu thresholding in MATLAB?

I am very new to signal processing. I am trying to extract a signal from my data using otsu threholding but it's not fully accurate. In this case I know that there is going to be a single signal in ...
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2answers
51 views

How to identify the beginning and the end of a signal using MATLAB

I have multiple signals as shown in this image. I'd like automatically detect time for the earliest detection of the signal (approx 0.7e4 in S1-B3-B (orange)) and last detected occurrence of the ...
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1answer
41 views

Area under waveform in t-domain including 2 delta functions

question: my attempt: $(a)$ $\displaystyle\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(t) dt=2 u (t)+r(t)-r(t-T)+Ku(t-T)$ then we draw it's diagram and found it was unbounded so,we doubt how area can be zero for any ...
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1answer
31 views

How would I find the function given the magnitude plot and the phase response?

I'm wondering how I'd find the Fourier Transform X(jw) given the following information: My understanding is that the expression for the continuous time fourier transform (CTFT) is magnitude(CTFT)exp(...
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1answer
29 views

Processing using Matlab

I'm new to Matlab.As a beginner, I want to work on few signals which are used in day today life and extract useful information through it. Can someone please help me from where I could start or share ...
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1answer
42 views

Confusion in the derivation of convolution formula [closed]

$$x(t)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}x(\tau)\delta(\tau-t)d\tau=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}x(\tau)\delta(t-\tau)d\tau$$ Due to linearity, $$y(t)=T\{x(t)\}=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}x(\tau)T\{\delta(\tau-t)\}d\tau=\...
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1answer
48 views

Are there any signals with brickwall autocorrelation?

Are there any signals whose autocorrelation $R(\tau)$ has the following form? Assuming $\tau_c > 0$ and $R_0 > 0$ a constant, $$R(\tau) = \begin{cases}R_0, \text{ for $|\tau| < \tau_c$} \\ 0,...
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1answer
38 views

Reason of effect of continuity and discreteness on periodicity of signal?

We know that a sine signal in continuous time is a periodic signal with a period $2\pi$ whereas the same sine signal in discrete time is aperiodic. My question is how changing just a type of signal (...