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Questions tagged [causality]

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Region of convergence of transfer function

I posted this question Mathematics SE and got no answer so I have posted it here. I learned in my signal processing class that an LTI system can be defined using a linear constant coefficient ...
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1answer
39 views

Causal LTI system having exponential input

I know that for an LTI system having complex exponential input, i.e, $x(t)=\exp(j w_o t)$ & $h(t) \to $ LTI System ; then, its output { $y(t) \} =M \exp(j w_o t + \phi)$ , where $M= |H(j w)|_{|w= ...
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82 views

Why the frequency response plots (of causal filters) only show positive frequency?

Take an example of the below plot for an LPF (Source : WikiPedia) The plot starts from $0$. We know that the fourier transform of any signal brings in negative frequencies due to complex exponentials ...
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1answer
115 views

System that has derivative of input is non causal

Consider a system $y(t) = \dot{x}(t)$ where $y$ is the output and $x$ is the input. Given an initial condition $x_0$ and two inputs $x_1$ and $x_2$ such that $$x_1(t)=x_2(t) , 0 \le t < t_0$$ the ...
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1answer
25 views

Causality of the given system

I am given the following discrete system $$y[n]=x[-n]$$ where $$x[n]=n+3$$. Now from what I understand, since $$y[n]=x[-n]$$ therefor the system is causal as the output is depending on the ...
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1answer
40 views

Finding the transfer function of a discrete signal described by two equations

A discrete time system is described by the following system of equations. $$q[n] = \big(x[n]-\frac k4q[n-1]\big)$$ $$y[n] = \big(q[n]-\frac k3q[n-1]\big)$$ Find the systen function and then find the ...
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2answers
120 views

Realization of a filter based on its transfer function

How can we check whether the filter is realizable given its transfer function and What are the parameters the realization depends on? Here is an example: Show that a filter with transfer function ...
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2answers
126 views

What is a memory less system?

As far as I have grasped the concept is that if we are given the expression $$y[n]=(2x[n]-x^2[n])^2\,,$$ it is a memory less system because even if we give negative values of $n$, we still get the ...
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1answer
247 views

Impulse response of a causal system from transfer function in z-domain

The transfer function is $$H(z)=(z+1)/(z^2+z+0.5)$$ I need to find the impulse response h[n] of a causal system with x[n] as unit impulse. I have tried to find the impulse response by the following ...
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1answer
709 views

How to conclude LTI, causality and BIBO stability of a system represented by a differential equation?

I have started to learn about systems represented by differential equations in Oppenheim's Signals & Systems, and I got really confused about it. I am trying to understand how I can show that a ...
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1answer
375 views

Precursor ISI - causality violation?

Today, in my lecture on intersymbol interference (ISI), there was a discussion on postcursor ISI, and precursor ISI. Postcursor ISI is caused by the past bits, whereas, precursor ISI is caused by the ...
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1answer
617 views

Does “improper” imply that a system cannot be stable and causal?

This answer and the comments in it made me wonder whether the following statement is true: If a transfer function is improper, then that system cannot be causal and stable at the same time. I had ...
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1answer
875 views

Physical Meaning of Negative Group Delay for causal LTI systems

I have implemented in Matlab (with minor variations) the example 5.1.2 "Illustration of Effects of Group Delay and Attenuation" I found in Alan Oppenheim's Discrete-Time Signal Processing 3rd edition. ...
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1answer
110 views

Time-invariance, causality and stability of $h(t)$ of four given systems

Question: The impulse response functions of four linear systems $S_1,\ S_2,\ S_3,\ S_4$ are given respectively by \begin{align} h_1(t)&=1\\ h_2(t)&=u(t)\\ h_3(t)&=\frac{u(t)}{(t+1)}...
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2answers
679 views

Why is $y(t)=x(t/2)$ a non-causal system?

I was going through my signal and system notes.they say $y(t)=x(t/2)$ is a non causal system? As non causal system depend on future inputs. how $t=t/2$ is future value of time? i could not understand ...
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1answer
363 views

For a system to be causal, number of finite zeros <= number of finite poles. Why?

I read in this pdf that for a system to be causal, the number of finite zeros must be no greater than number of finite poles. Why? I know that for a system to be causal, $h[n]=0$ for all $n<0$. ...
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5answers
682 views

Why can't a causal digital filter have an infinitely sharp transition between the passband and the stopband?

In DSP book by Proakis and as well as in this pdf, it is mentioned that practical causal digital filters cannot have an infinitely sharp transition from Pass-band to Stop-band. Why is it so? Can you ...
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2answers
105 views

When inverting a transfer function, solving for the input using the output does the causality status change

suppose $y(n)=ax(n-1)+bx(n-2)+\dots$ ($y$ is the output and $x$ the input). What happens if I want to solve $x(n)$ from $y(n)$? Z transform: $$Y(z)=G(z)X(z)\tag{1}$$ then $$X(z)=\frac{1}{G(z)...
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1answer
388 views

Hilbert transform properties

Here Its says Hilbert transform is a non-causal,linear,and time-invariant system How can I prove it mathematically? wikipedia says the input output relation like this $$\boxed{y(t)=\frac{1}{\pi}\...
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1answer
648 views

causality of the system $y[n] = x(2n)$

Can somebody please tell me why the system $y[n] = x(2n)$ is non-causal ? I know that causal systems depend on the past and present values of input and this system satisfies the condition. So why is ...
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2answers
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whether the system is linear or not for the given problem

Given the system: $$y(t)=x(t+1)+x(t−1)$$ is the system linear? For a system to be a linear first it should satisfy zero input and zero output. How can we calculate output at 0 input if the system ...
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1answer
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can $\frac{1}{H(z)}$ be causal and stable? [duplicate]

if we have linear phase FIR filter $H(z)$ which is causal and stable can $\frac{1}{H(z)}$ be causal and stable ? can it be causal without been stable ?
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1answer
553 views

Linearity, Causality and Stability of a System

Consider a system: $$ y[n] = y[n-1] + u[n], $$ where $y[n]$ is the output and $u[n]$ is the unit step function. Is this system causal, linear, time-invariant and stable ? My attempt at the ...
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1answer
2k views

Proof of Paley-Wiener criterion for causality

The Paley-Wiener criterion for causality is that $\displaystyle\int_{\mathbb{R}}\frac{A(\omega)}{1 + \omega^2}\mathrm{d}\omega$ exists and is finite, where $A(\omega) = \left|\mathcal{F}[f]\right|$ is ...
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1answer
184 views

How to analyse anti-causal discrete transfer function using matlab?

Consider a discrete transfer function that represents an anti causal filter such as a derivative filter: $$H(z) = (-z^{-2} -2z^{-1} +2z +z^2) (1/8T)$$ Where T is the sampling period. Normally in ...
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1answer
216 views

Definition of minimum-phase system

I saw a couple of definitions for minimum-phase in different textbooks and I'm trying to understand what the implication of each of them. The first definition I saw was: An invertible system which ...
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2answers
317 views

Two real time signals convolving

This might be a stupid question but is it possible to convolve two real-time signals together? I know that generally for running convolution you have the IR and the block of the real time signal and ...
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1answer
882 views

Causality and ROC of a stable LTI system

So I am looking at a stable LTI system whose input is $x[n]$ and output is $y[n]$. The equation relating the two is here: $$ y[n-1]-\frac{10}{3}y[n]+y[n+1]=x[n] $$ I was able to compute its system ...
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1answer
452 views

Allpass Filters - Causal and Stable

So I have been learning about how to test systems for causality and stability but I am confused about the implications on their unit circle representation. Would it be safe to say that a causal and ...
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1answer
629 views

What is the easiest, most straight-forward way to prove this about minimum-phase filters?

Using the "unitary" or "ordinary frequency" or "Hz" convention for the continuous Fourier Transform: $$ \begin{align} X(f) \triangleq \mathscr{F}\{x(t)\} &= \int\limits_{-\infty}^{\infty} x(t) \, ...
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2answers
475 views

Is a filter/control transfer function with positive phase “causal”?

In control we often use transfer functions with positive phase, i.e., a "lead filter" has transfer function $$G_c(s) = \frac{\alpha \tau s+1}{\tau s+1}$$ (with $\alpha>1$). Since the zero occurs ...
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1answer
285 views

In the context of transfer functions, what is the relationship between the terms “proper”, “causal”, and “realizable”?

I am thinking about these terms in the context of linear control. A transfer function is proper if the degree of the numerator is not greater than the degree of the denominator. I've read often that ...
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1answer
239 views

Is the following system stable and causal?

Suppose the following function describes the unit step response of a system, where $u[n]$ is the unit step function. $$ y[n]=\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^{n-1}u[n+1] $$ I want to find out the system ...
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1answer
302 views

Causal system and Physical Systems

According to the Paley-Wiener criterion, a system is causal if satisfies: $$\int\limits_{-\infty }^{+\infty }{\frac{\ln (|H(f)|)}{1+{{f}^{2}}}}df<\infty$$ So I want to know This equation is ...
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3answers
1k views

Signals and systems : why do we study causal signals?

Till now I have read that causal signals are right sided and anti-causal, left sided. Why did we need to classify a signal with respect to its position? What is it's physical interpretation? ...