We’re rewarding the question askers & reputations are being recalculated! Read more.

Questions tagged [causality]

The tag has no usage guidance.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
-3
votes
0answers
17 views

Is the system characterized by the equation y(t+1)=x(t) causal or not? Plz explain

Is the system characterized by the equation y(t+1)=x(t) causal or not? If it is not causal, please explain why. Also explain the criteria based on which a system is defined as causal.
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Initial Rest Condition for LCCDE causal LTI systems

I am self studying Alan Opennheim's course Signals and Systems. I am a math major and have no background in EE. I understand that for a LCCDE system to be linear its auxiliary conditions must be 0. ...
-1
votes
1answer
50 views

Relation between causality and stability? [closed]

What is the relation between causality and stability of a system??To be stable,is it must for the system to be also causal? and if the system is not causal, will it not be stable? or these two ...
4
votes
4answers
850 views

Is the first derivative operation on a signal a causal system?

Please help me sort this issue out. Consider a system whose output $y(t)$ is the first derivative of the input signal $x(t)$. We can write the first derivative of an input signal as follows: $$y(t)...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Causal bandpass using fft?

I would like to take a time series of several spikes or narrow Gaussians and bandpass using an ift/ifft together with a frequency domain mask to create a series containing band-limited spikes. This is ...
0
votes
2answers
105 views

Z transform - Inverse System function - Why number of poles and zeros myst be equal?

I know that if a system is causal then the system function H(z) must have : a) a ROC that spans from the exterior of the most distant pole and b) the number of zeros must not be greater than the ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Region of convergence of transfer function

I posted this question Mathematics SE and got no answer so I have posted it here. I learned in my signal processing class that an LTI system can be defined using a linear constant coefficient ...
2
votes
1answer
115 views

Causal LTI system having exponential input

I know that for an LTI system having complex exponential input, i.e, $x(t)=\exp(j w_o t)$ & $h(t) \to $ LTI System ; then, its output { $y(t) \} =M \exp(j w_o t + \phi)$ , where $M= |H(j w)|_{|w= ...
0
votes
1answer
177 views

Why the frequency response plots (of causal filters) only show positive frequency?

Take an example of the below plot for an LPF (Source : WikiPedia) The plot starts from $0$. We know that the fourier transform of any signal brings in negative frequencies due to complex exponentials ...
0
votes
1answer
252 views

System that has derivative of input is non causal

Consider a system $y(t) = \dot{x}(t)$ where $y$ is the output and $x$ is the input. Given an initial condition $x_0$ and two inputs $x_1$ and $x_2$ such that $$x_1(t)=x_2(t) , 0 \le t < t_0$$ the ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Causality of the given system

I am given the following discrete system $$y[n]=x[-n]$$ where $$x[n]=n+3$$. Now from what I understand, since $$y[n]=x[-n]$$ therefor the system is causal as the output is depending on the ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Finding the transfer function of a discrete signal described by two equations

A discrete time system is described by the following system of equations. $$q[n] = \big(x[n]-\frac k4q[n-1]\big)$$ $$y[n] = \big(q[n]-\frac k3q[n-1]\big)$$ Find the systen function and then find the ...
0
votes
2answers
249 views

Realization of a filter based on its transfer function

How can we check whether the filter is realizable given its transfer function and What are the parameters the realization depends on? Here is an example: Show that a filter with transfer function ...
1
vote
2answers
406 views

What is a memory less system?

As far as I have grasped the concept is that if we are given the expression $$y[n]=(2x[n]-x^2[n])^2\,,$$ it is a memory less system because even if we give negative values of $n$, we still get the ...
1
vote
1answer
370 views

Impulse response of a causal system from transfer function in z-domain

The transfer function is $$H(z)=(z+1)/(z^2+z+0.5)$$ I need to find the impulse response h[n] of a causal system with x[n] as unit impulse. I have tried to find the impulse response by the following ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

How to conclude LTI, causality and BIBO stability of a system represented by a differential equation?

I have started to learn about systems represented by differential equations in Oppenheim's Signals & Systems, and I got really confused about it. I am trying to understand how I can show that a ...
1
vote
1answer
968 views

Precursor ISI - causality violation?

Today, in my lecture on intersymbol interference (ISI), there was a discussion on postcursor ISI, and precursor ISI. Postcursor ISI is caused by the past bits, whereas, precursor ISI is caused by the ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Does “improper” imply that a system cannot be stable and causal?

This answer and the comments in it made me wonder whether the following statement is true: If a transfer function is improper, then that system cannot be causal and stable at the same time. I had ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Physical Meaning of Negative Group Delay for causal LTI systems

I have implemented in Matlab (with minor variations) the example 5.1.2 "Illustration of Effects of Group Delay and Attenuation" I found in Alan Oppenheim's Discrete-Time Signal Processing 3rd edition. ...
0
votes
1answer
128 views

Time-invariance, causality and stability of $h(t)$ of four given systems

Question: The impulse response functions of four linear systems $S_1,\ S_2,\ S_3,\ S_4$ are given respectively by \begin{align} h_1(t)&=1\\ h_2(t)&=u(t)\\ h_3(t)&=\frac{u(t)}{(t+1)}...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Why is $y(t)=x(t/2)$ a non-causal system?

I was going through my signal and system notes.they say $y(t)=x(t/2)$ is a non causal system? As non causal system depend on future inputs. how $t=t/2$ is future value of time? i could not understand ...
3
votes
1answer
488 views

For a system to be causal, number of finite zeros <= number of finite poles. Why?

I read in this pdf that for a system to be causal, the number of finite zeros must be no greater than number of finite poles. Why? I know that for a system to be causal, $h[n]=0$ for all $n<0$. ...
4
votes
5answers
807 views

Why can't a causal digital filter have an infinitely sharp transition between the passband and the stopband?

In DSP book by Proakis and as well as in this pdf, it is mentioned that practical causal digital filters cannot have an infinitely sharp transition from Pass-band to Stop-band. Why is it so? Can you ...
2
votes
2answers
215 views

When inverting a transfer function, solving for the input using the output does the causality status change

suppose $y(n)=ax(n-1)+bx(n-2)+\dots$ ($y$ is the output and $x$ the input). What happens if I want to solve $x(n)$ from $y(n)$? Z transform: $$Y(z)=G(z)X(z)\tag{1}$$ then $$X(z)=\frac{1}{G(z)...
1
vote
1answer
468 views

Hilbert transform properties

Here Its says Hilbert transform is a non-causal,linear,and time-invariant system How can I prove it mathematically? wikipedia says the input output relation like this $$\boxed{y(t)=\frac{1}{\pi}\...
3
votes
1answer
922 views

causality of the system $y[n] = x(2n)$

Can somebody please tell me why the system $y[n] = x(2n)$ is non-causal ? I know that causal systems depend on the past and present values of input and this system satisfies the condition. So why is ...
3
votes
2answers
81 views

whether the system is linear or not for the given problem

Given the system: $$y(t)=x(t+1)+x(t−1)$$ is the system linear? For a system to be a linear first it should satisfy zero input and zero output. How can we calculate output at 0 input if the system ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

can $\frac{1}{H(z)}$ be causal and stable? [duplicate]

if we have linear phase FIR filter $H(z)$ which is causal and stable can $\frac{1}{H(z)}$ be causal and stable ? can it be causal without been stable ?
1
vote
1answer
916 views

Linearity, Causality and Stability of a System

Consider a system: $$ y[n] = y[n-1] + u[n], $$ where $y[n]$ is the output and $u[n]$ is the unit step function. Is this system causal, linear, time-invariant and stable ? My attempt at the ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Proof of Paley-Wiener criterion for causality

The Paley-Wiener criterion for causality is that $\displaystyle\int_{\mathbb{R}}\frac{A(\omega)}{1 + \omega^2}\mathrm{d}\omega$ exists and is finite, where $A(\omega) = \left|\mathcal{F}[f]\right|$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
241 views

How to analyse anti-causal discrete transfer function using matlab?

Consider a discrete transfer function that represents an anti causal filter such as a derivative filter: $$H(z) = (-z^{-2} -2z^{-1} +2z +z^2) (1/8T)$$ Where T is the sampling period. Normally in ...
1
vote
1answer
268 views

Definition of minimum-phase system

I saw a couple of definitions for minimum-phase in different textbooks and I'm trying to understand what the implication of each of them. The first definition I saw was: An invertible system which ...
3
votes
2answers
390 views

Two real time signals convolving

This might be a stupid question but is it possible to convolve two real-time signals together? I know that generally for running convolution you have the IR and the block of the real time signal and ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Causality and ROC of a stable LTI system

So I am looking at a stable LTI system whose input is $x[n]$ and output is $y[n]$. The equation relating the two is here: $$ y[n-1]-\frac{10}{3}y[n]+y[n+1]=x[n] $$ I was able to compute its system ...
2
votes
1answer
531 views

Allpass Filters - Causal and Stable

So I have been learning about how to test systems for causality and stability but I am confused about the implications on their unit circle representation. Would it be safe to say that a causal and ...
7
votes
1answer
763 views

What is the easiest, most straight-forward way to prove this about minimum-phase filters?

Using the "unitary" or "ordinary frequency" or "Hz" convention for the continuous Fourier Transform: $$ \begin{align} X(f) \triangleq \mathscr{F}\{x(t)\} &= \int\limits_{-\infty}^{\infty} x(t) \, ...
1
vote
2answers
625 views

Is a filter/control transfer function with positive phase “causal”?

In control we often use transfer functions with positive phase, i.e., a "lead filter" has transfer function $$G_c(s) = \frac{\alpha \tau s+1}{\tau s+1}$$ (with $\alpha>1$). Since the zero occurs ...
2
votes
1answer
400 views

In the context of transfer functions, what is the relationship between the terms “proper”, “causal”, and “realizable”?

I am thinking about these terms in the context of linear control. A transfer function is proper if the degree of the numerator is not greater than the degree of the denominator. I've read often that ...
1
vote
1answer
418 views

Is the following system stable and causal?

Suppose the following function describes the unit step response of a system, where $u[n]$ is the unit step function. $$ y[n]=\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^{n-1}u[n+1] $$ I want to find out the system ...
6
votes
1answer
352 views

Causal system and Physical Systems

According to the Paley-Wiener criterion, a system is causal if satisfies: $$\int\limits_{-\infty }^{+\infty }{\frac{\ln (|H(f)|)}{1+{{f}^{2}}}}df<\infty$$ So I want to know This equation is ...
2
votes
3answers
2k views

Signals and systems : why do we study causal signals?

Till now I have read that causal signals are right sided and anti-causal, left sided. Why did we need to classify a signal with respect to its position? What is it's physical interpretation? ...