Questions tagged [biquad]

Biquad is referred to either analog or digital second order filters

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54 views

Discrepancy in frequency response of biquad filter (in Python)

I have written a simple biquad filter class but when I check its frequency response, I get different results with different methods. If I check it "empirically" (by taking the FFT of its ...
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2answers
80 views

What is the $Q$ of successive Second-Order Sections of an $N$th-order Butterworth low-pass filter?

What if you had an $N$th-order Butterworth lowpass filter filter with -3 dB frequency of $\Omega_0$? $$ \Big| H(j\Omega) \Big|^2 = \frac{1}{1 + \left(\frac{\Omega}{\Omega_0}\right)^{2N}} $$ The number ...
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3answers
220 views

ELI5: How do biquad filters like bandpass "know" the frequency of a signal?

I understand the code behind biquads, but I fail to understand how 5 coefficients in a biquadratic formula can isolate frequencies so precisely, especially considering it only takes the last two ...
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49 views

High pass biquad cascade transposed direct form II low frequency accuracy

I'm quite new to DSP and I'm trying to implement high pass biquad cascade in transposed direct form II. Currently my implementation has very poor accuracy at cutoff frequencies that are less than 5kHz ...
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1answer
81 views

How to optimally normalize filter coefficients?

I have designed an IIR filter in Matlab that comprises the following biquads ...
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1answer
39 views

Derive Time-Domain Biquad Coefficients from Z-Domain

I'm trying to derive the time-domain coefficients of a biquad filter based on its z-domain coefficients. The purpose is to import externally-generated EQ filters (in z-domain) into Max/MSP (in time-...
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3answers
179 views

Biquad cascading frequency response

I am implementing EQ lines in my filter. I need to do biquad with slope 24 db/oct, 36/oct and bigger so I would like to cascade several biquads. I am stuck with calculating frequency response of two ...
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1answer
83 views

Direct form 1 filter equation for a biquad filter

In general, we all know that the direct form 1 equation for a biquad filter is given by $$y(n) = b_0x(n) + b_1x(n-1) + b_2x(n-2) - a_1y(n-1) - a_2y(n-2)$$ But when it comes to practical applications ...
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2answers
307 views

Converting cascaded biquads to parallel biquads

I need to convert a fourth-order IIR filter made using two cascaded second-order sections with the transfer function: $$ H(z) = \frac{b2_{1}z^{-2} + b1_{1}z^{-1} + b0_{1}}{a2_{1}z^{-2} + a1_{1}z^{-1} ...
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593 views

Calculating the true values of biquad filter coefficients from normalized form

I have a C code in which the IIR filter(BiQuad) uses only 4 (normalized) coefficients per stage (a2/a0,a1/a0,b2/b0,b1/b0) instead of 6 coefficients (a0,a1,a2,b0,b1,b2). I know that the value of a0 is ...
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80 views

IIR Cascaded Filter Response, Unexpected Results

I am attempting to understand how to manipulate portions of a cascaded series of biquad notch filters in a control system I am working with. As part of determining the composite response of all the ...
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2answers
447 views

How do you calculate the group delay in samples of a Biquad Filter at a given frequency from the coefficients?

If I have a BiQuad all-pass filter with a given set of coefficients such as: g: 0.903228 a1: -1.88142 a2: 0.903228 B1: -2.08299 B2: 1.10714 And my operation per ...
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1answer
301 views

Biquad high-pass filter not working as expected

I'm trying to implement a high-pass filter using the the coefficients described in RBJ's well-known EQ cookbook (see https://www.w3.org/TR/audio-eq-cookbook/). However, when I run white noise through ...
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1answer
87 views

bibliography about implementation of IIR filters

I need to implement a 6th order IIR filter. The filter I need to implement is the A-weighting. I've simply used the bilinear function of Matlab with an fs of 20Khz. I need to implement this over the ...
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1answer
55 views

Biquad Filter Non-Linearity

I'm using a biquad filter algorithm in my project. I got 3, 16 size variable arrays summing into one and then gets filtered. Now i want to filter each array seperately and sum after that, which if the ...
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81 views

Biquad Type-II Coefficient Generation

I have a Biquad II filter implementation in my embedded environment and I'm trying to find some equations to generate the coefficients for it. I have already found the Audio Eq Cookbook, which simply ...
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1answer
202 views

Why does my low pass filter diverge below 7000 Hz?

I'm trying to create a LPF, using language JAVA. My first aim is to understand how filters design is working and the second one is to create a "home made" equalizer with "home made" filters. To help ...
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1answer
96 views

Known problems with IIR DF2 when using 64-bit floating point processing?

So far I was using DF1 for biquad filters for audio DSP, but it turns out that it is possible to gain significant performance gains using the new AVX/AVX512 instruction sets using DF2. Are there any ...
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1answer
174 views

Biquad and polarity flipping

Assuming normalized biquad coefficients: $$ H(z) = \frac{b_0 + b_1z^{-1} + b_2z^{-2}} {1 + a_1z^{-1} + a_2z^{-2}} $$ And taking the definition of flipping the polarity as multiplying every tap in a ...
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201 views

Issue with the Massberg Analog-Matched Low Pass Filter

Implemented the filter mentioned in title using Octave and couple sources Vicanek and Zeitlin (LPF.cpp). Got filter working otherwise but, ... when tested the responses against 'analog model' of the ...
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1answer
420 views

How would I calculate the state-variables of digital biquad filter (direct form II transposed) at steady-state?

I'm attempting to calculate the steady-state state variables for a digital biquad filter direct form II (transposed). Illustration For example, let assume the filter is fed a constant input of ...
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2answers
939 views

Help with audio EQ cookbook BPF filters and Q

I am fairly new DSP, and am using maths that I have not used in 20-30 years. I have been working with Cookbook formulae for audio EQ biquad filter coefficients by Robert Bristow-Johnson and am having ...
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1answer
242 views

Can a Goertzel filter response be mapped to a Direct Form II Biquad IIR Filter

I am looking at the structure of the Goertzel Filter, and it seems like I can map its coefficients to the standard implementation of the CMSIS DSP Biquad Cascade IIR Filter. Is this possible or should ...
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2answers
89 views

MATLAB's $\tt dsp.ParametricEQFilter$ bandwidth question

Consider the following code: ...
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1answer
201 views

Biquad Treble Shelf filter gain being weird

Trying to compute Biquad Coefficients for use in a codec chip TLV320AIC3100. Bass Shelf(boost and attenuation) work as expected. Treble Shelf attenuation works as expected but Treble Shelf boost is ...
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1answer
294 views

Is it possible to combine two or more Biquads?

I've wrote a Equalizer, and now it apply the Biquads in serie (cascade), I was just thinking if i can combine the biquads it will more efficient than applying one-per-one. Is that possible?
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4answers
1k views

Avoiding clicks with changing biquad coefficients

I have a DSP application that filters a signal with five cascaded biquads whose coefficients are determined by the Audio EQ Cookbook formulae (Thanks for this work, Mr. Bristow-Johnson btw). Each ...
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118 views

PeakEq center frequency does not match frequency response

Following the Cookbook i calculed these coefficients: ...
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1answer
924 views

How do scaling of the coefficients for the poles of a biquad filter affect the gain?

Given a digital filter consisting of a chain of digital biquad filters. Given a digital biquad filter with a normalized Direct form 1 difference equation: $ y_n = b_0x_n + b_1x_{n-1}+b_2x_{n-2} - ...
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336 views

Software implementation recipe of cascaded Biquad IIR filter

I have been given the task of measuring the performance of Biquad IIR filters on a new CPU that we are evaluating. What I know is that the Biquad filters can be cascaded to form higher order filters. ...
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3answers
666 views

IIR biquad real-time filter just output noises

I've implemented a IIR filter but it outputs only noise (like FM radio out of tuning) and I can't see what's wrong. This is the processing function: ...
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1answer
923 views

Biquad filter from Matlab to C using "tf2sos"

This is a biquad implementation I use: ...
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1answer
810 views

4th order high-pass filter on a DSP: standard or biquads?

I have two C implementations of 4th order high-pass filter (fs = 16 kHz, cut-off=100 Hz, designed using Matlab ...
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1answer
122 views

What's the point of MATLAB's scaling array for secord-order-section filters?

I'm currently working on a project where I'm implementing different filter types (e.g. iirs - direct form 1, 2, transposed 1, 2, etc.). I just recently started attempting to implement a second order ...
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1answer
451 views

Two question about RBJ Peak filter

I'm new into DSP and Filters in general. Its the first step ahead I do from learning and using a 1-pole IIR basic Low Pass Filter. I'm about to implement for my VST audio application (using C++ and ...
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1answer
178 views

Filter long audio data using cascading biquad filter

I would like to lowpass filter a long pcm wav file. I designed a 20 order butterworth lowpass filter in Octave and transform the zero pole gain data to a series of second order sections. Then I am ...
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1answer
519 views

Biquad cookbook formula for broadcast FM de-emphasis?

Can a simple IIR biquad filter be used as an audio de-emphasis filter for broadcast FM radio? If so, how does one translate the filter requirements (50 uS time constant in the U.S.?) into parameters ...
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51 views

Is there any audio DSP without biquad constraint?

I found a codec with audio DSP, ADAU1772. It supports 32 biquads, that is $32\cdot5=160$ parameters. I need to calculate filter coefficients on-line. The result is in transfer function form, i.e., $...
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1answer
1k views

Prewarping both resonant frequency $f_0$ and bandwidth (or $Q$) when using bilinear transform

RBJ's Audio EQ cookbook takes into account only frequency prewarping when case Q is used for bandwidth. Why not $Q$ prewarping as well with some of those filter ...
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1answer
382 views

Biquad coefficients using Magnitude (or Phase) Invariance Mapping Method

I'm trying MIM (Magnitude Invariance Method) and PIM (Phase Invariance Method) for to improve biquad LPF response at low sampling rates. I'm looking some help and examples of usage if available. ...
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2answers
1k views

Is there a method to calculate the maximum gain of a biquad?

Given an IIR expressed as a biquad: $$ H(z) = {b_0 + b_1 z^{-1} + b_2 z^{-2} \over 1 + a_1 z^{-1} + a_2 z^{-2}} $$ Is there a way to calculate the maximum gain the biquad attains over the range $0$ ...
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2answers
762 views

How to calculate biquad coefficients for the partial (1%, 10%) applying of pre-emphasis effect

I'm using sox to emulate RIAA pre-emphasis and de-emphasis effects on audio files. For pre-emphasis I call it like this: ...
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196 views

Combining IIM and MZT transformation

Split from thread: Correcting Impulse Invariance Method Back to this subject. Matt L suggested combining IIM and MZT b-coeffs to get the filter response improved at hihger frequency area. Couldn't ...
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392 views

Biquad Filter Optimization

I would like to try optimize a bit more the biquad filters indended for RIAA/non-RIAA equalization at low samplerates (44.1/48kHz). Are there any open source optimization libraries (C, C++ or C#) out ...
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1answer
72 views

Calculating the product of discrete transfer functions

I'm trying to construct a higher order IIR from a biquad cascade, I know this is generally frowned upon, but it's necessary as the coefficients will be embedded into a larger formula used in a FDTD ...
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2answers
849 views

Regarding BIQUAD IIR implementation in MATLAB

I want to implement a high pass filter (order 4) in MATLAB using cascade form. ...
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2answers
139 views

Transform one-pole cascaded system into a biquadratic section

I have two cascaded one-pole sections with the same coefficient b for both sections. $$ y_A[n]=x_A[n]+b\cdot(y_A[n−1]−x_A[n])\\ y_B[n]=y_A[n]+b\cdot(y_B[n−1]−y_A[n]) $$ The final output of the system ...
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1answer
661 views

Discrete-time Biquad filter: Relation between peak frequency and pole frequency

This question arose from a discussion in the comments to this question and its answer. The author of that question discussed a discrete-time second order filter described by the following difference ...
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809 views

Biquad high-pass filter - calculating filter slope

I have to design high-pass IIR Biquad filter with cutoff frequency of 80Hz, sampling frequency 24kHz, and filter slope of 24dB/oct @ 80Hz. I have used formula for HPF biquad coefficients from here. ...
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1answer
607 views

Tricks for computing rapidly changing biquad coefficients

I have 5 'negative peaking' biquads that will change center frequency while maintaining a constant Q and A (amplitude reduction) on a realtime microcontroller (ARM cortex-m4) with a codec over i2s ...