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# Questions tagged [beamforming]

Forming a beam (directional gain) and, sometimes, shifting the beam direction.

26 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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247 views

### Question on spatial sampling for non-linear and/or non-uniform arrays

I am a little confused as to how to compute the nyquist criterion for a sensor array that is not linear, and/or non-uniform. For the linear, uniformly spaced case, the spatial nyquist is delimited by ...
52 views

### Physical Interpretation of $\mathbf A$ beamforming Matrix

The directivity of an array is defined as: $$D = \frac{1}{2} \int_{-1}^{1} \lvert B_{u}(u)\rvert^{2} du$$ Where $B_{u}(\cdot) = \mathbf{w}^{H} \mathbf{v}(\cdot)$ is the beampattern of the array in ...
284 views

### Time-Delay beamforming delay computation

I'm trying to implement a beamforming algorithm in python and I'm stuck with the time-delay computation for a rectangular array. I'm using the following equation to compute the delays based on the ...
138 views

### Superdirectivity Beamformer for Circular microphone array

The matrix below represents the inverse of correlation matrix assuming diffuse noise field. I am unable to figure out the values of the elements of this matrix. how to calculate $c_{M}(\omega)$ ?
117 views

### Beam pattern for a linear array comprised of rectangular transducers

I am looking for the beam pattern of a linear array with uniform spacing, $d$, between $n$ elements. I know for an array comprised of circular pistons it can be derived from \frac{1}{n}\frac{\sin[...
72 views

### The Rank Of Broadband LCMV Beamformer Constraint Matrix

So I am wondering why I keep seeing that the rank of the LCMV Broadband Constraint Matrix is equal to the number of constraints, when in practice, I find that the rank is only 1. This is precluding me ...
42 views

### How to generate a beam pattern from a beamformer on 3D

given a 3D microphone array with $M$ microphones, $d(f,\Theta)\in \mathbb{R}^{f\times M}$ is the steering vector for a given direction $\Theta=(\varphi,\theta)$, inclanation and azimuth respectively. ...
16 views

### Steering vector for beamforming in 3D

I am trying to implement a steering vector in 3D for beamforming. Let $A\in \mathbb{R}^{M\times 3}$ be a matrix containing the $(x,y,z)$ coordinates for $M$ sensors and the impinging source direction ...
9 views

### Question on unitary DFT matrix based beamforming

I am trying to experiment with digital beamforming for the first time & found a lot of literature making use of unitary DFT based beamforming but wasnt able to figure why(or how) DFT-based ...
25 views

### Hot to generate image through Delay and Sum algorithm

I want to generate image through Delay and Sum algorithm. The list of the formula are attached, I have calculated rij(t) which is nothing but signals in time domain (1xn matrices), and the tij(x,y) (...
22 views

### How to create test vectors for wideband beamforming aplications?

I'm trying to create test vectors for a beamforming algorithm I'm simulating in Matlab. I have a complex signal and I want to create the signal as seen by each antenna element. This will allow me to ...
44 views

### Beamforming but only for total power?

Is there a method to speed up beam-forming if you only care about the total power in a given direction, or total power in frequency groups? I've googled this, and can't find anything. My intuition ...
37 views

### frequency/phase offset estimation in satellite DOA beamforming applications

In satellite QPSK demodulation, we first estimate and remove the phase offset introduced by the channel. Then, we demodulate the baseband information bits (I & Q channels). In satellite DOA ...
64 views

### Linear Combiner Based LMS Transfer Function

I am currently working on narrowband beamforming and looking to compute the transfer function for a linear combiner based LMS. While doing a quick search I have found the following article which ...
114 views

### How to realistically represent antenna elements in phased array system alongside it's 3D gain response?

Please find the figure below where I've plotted a 3D gain response(in dB) of an antenna array system for beam-steering application and overlaid the actual antenna element(in red X marks surrounded by ...
24 views

### Can the j be equal to k in the first formula ?In MISO system

In this system model,the received signal available for RF EH at each RX_k is given by However,its SINR formula is given by We can find that author said the j can't be equal to k,but their range are ...
34 views

### How multi layer map to different beams in LTE Beamforming

I understand for SU-MIMO Beamforming single layer maps to all antennas with phase shift applied to create beam. Also I understand in this case all beams will be carrying same signal (say s1). But in ...
46 views

### Radar - CFAR processing post Digital Beamforming - efficient alternative methods

A radar using a ULA with a large number of elements(for instance N=150 for 1[deg] beamwidth[1]) is being designed. After the Range and Doppler processing, Digital Beamforing is being performed, ...
45 views

### Space-time filtering vs. beamforming

Say I have a dense linear array of sensors in space and an acoustic signal propagating through them. In this case, how would delay-and-sum beamforming compare to space-time filtering by masking the ...
54 views

### Multiple beam beamforming

For digital beamforming, we can form as many beams as we want. No matter where I read about this subject I cannot find any discussion of the interference that one would expect between beams (not ...
104 views

### Generalized Sidelobe Cancelling performance

I'm tinkering with different adaptive beam-forming algorithms for a research project in which I want to use a Uniform Rectangular microphones Array (URA) to isolate speech in a room. I am determining ...
1k views

### Difference between single layer and dual layer beamforming in LTE

I'm trying to understand the difference between single and dual layer beamforming in LTE as described in TS 36.101 section B.4.1 and B.4.2 respectively. Also refer to TS 36.211 section 6.3.4.2.3 for ...
158 views

### How to think about beamforming when there's no “space” between receivers?

I'm trying to wrap my head around how does "beamforming" work when there's no physical "space" between receivers. My background knowledge: I've always thought about beamforming as a sort of spacial ...
48 views

### Mean of the product of a signal with its conjugate

I have to find $E\{s_m\cdot s_n^*\}$, where $E$ denotes mean or expected value; $s$ is a signal at $m \in [1\ldots M]$ elements and $^*$ denotes its conjugate. I am doing it by dividing it into two ...
209 views

### Which algorithms one can use for matrix inversion (for beamforming application MVDR/LCMV) in Fixed Point?

I have implemented beamformer(MVDR/LCMV) for speech enhancement in matlab, now I am trying to convert it to fixed point implementation. during the weight calculation step correlation matrix inversion ...
141 views

### Calculation of Correlation Matrix

In the description of any Beamforming Technique for microphone array signal processing there is a usage of the co-relation matrix. What is the use of calculating such a co-relation matrix in such ...