# Questions tagged [bandwidth]

the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a contiguous set of frequencies

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### How Does the RMS of White Noise Change with Sampling Frequency?

There is an analog system which includes the continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE). With some .noise analysis the power-spectral density (PSD) of the noise in that system is provided. So let's not ...
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### How can I design a PI controller for a closed loop system, which requires a bandwidth equal to the natural frequency and a set Phase Margin?

For a school project I have to hand in a small report on a this problem. I've been studying so much for it but right now I'm just mixing up everything I've seen and just don't know where to start. I'd ...
395 views

### Short length windowed sinc filter

I have a 50-60Hz signal being sampled at a frequency of 25 kHz & I'm trying to filter all frequencies beyond 70 Hz with a reasonable steep transition band (approx 4 Hz) & good attenuation (~40+...
467 views

### Condition for modelling noise as white noise

I am reading a book on Communication System by Simon Haykin. In the topic of white noise there is a paragraph "We may state that as long as the bandwidth of noise process at input of a system is ...
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### What is a $BT$ (Bandwidth-Time) product with reference to modulation?

I would like to know what does Bandwidth-Time product mean. I understand that Bandwidth ($B$) = 1/Symbol Time ($T$), hence $BT = 1$. But how can it vary? What is its significance? e.g. When we say ...
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### Could 2 synchronised RX chains be used to receive a signal too wide for just one of them?

Say the goal is to demodulate a "wide" signal, e.g. 300 MHz wide. An SDR is available with a maximum RX bandwidth of 150 MHz (ADC sampling freq. limitation), but it comes with 2 RX channels sharing ...
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### Bandwidth of product of two signals

POINT 1: According to convolution theorem, if g1(t) has a bandwidth B1 and g2(t) has a bandwidth B2, then product g1(t)g2(t) has a bandwidth = B1 + B2. POINT 2: Now, consider an AM waveform s(t)=g(t)...
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### Estimating the bandwidth of various signals

I am trying to estimate the bandwidth of different signals, with different modulations, as seen in a PSD graph. I've heard about a "$3\ \rm dB$ rule" in this context. I don't need extreme accuracy. ...
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### Parseval's Theorm and Effective Bandwidth

This question says that RMS bandwidth (effective bandwidth) is defined based on the carrier frequency of a signal. This makes intuitive sense to me that the carrier frequency shouldn't determine the ...
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### The number of bits per symbol is less than one

For a channel of bandwidth B Hz and signal-to-noise ratio of S/N, i have used Shannon-formula to calculate the maximum channel capacity C. For transmitting at the nyquist baud rate (2 symbol/sec), ...
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### How to calculate bandwidth require for OFDM

I read LTE PHY profile and do not understand the relationship between number of FFT and bandwidth. For example LTE downlink channel bandwidth 1.25MHz and 5MHz have 128 FFTs and 512 FFTs accordingly. ...
320 views

### “Capacity” concept in Shannon Theorem

I have a question about the Shannon Theorem. According to this theorem the maximum capacity of a link can be calculated with the formula: $$C=B\log_2(1+S/N)$$ where $B$ is the bandwidth and $S/N$ is ...
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### Multiband processing in one pass

I want to split signal in multiple bands and process each band. Number of bands is not yet determined, but it would be more then 6 and less then 11 (depending on the collected results) As ...
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### Clarification on how bandwidth effects input signal

I know that the system bandwidth is the maximum range of frequencies that a system can handle. Is the reason that the input signal gets distorted as the bandwidth decreases a result of fewer segments ...
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### How to calculate transfer rate and needed bandwidth

I have two questions: 1- If I want to transfer a photo via bluetooth, how should I find how long it takes to transfer? I mean the formula between the image size, bluetooth bandwidth and time. 2- If ...
2k views

### Time-Bandwidth Product

The following text is cited from a textbook, "Spotlight Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach", I would like to ask if anyone knows the proof to the following statements, as the ...
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### How to calculate bandwidth of a wire, “air” or other channels?

I'm really curious of how engineers identify what is the frequency range that could be sent through "wire" as channel? Do they put wire in front of them and make test that consists of sending ...
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### Bandwidth of M-ary modulation schemes

I am confused with regard to how bandwidth increases with increase in number of bits transmitted for given duration. 1) Usually say in PCM system, when we increase the number of bits (n) for a given ...
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### Mathematical question that comes out of using bilinear transform

So this is related to the Cookbook and I tried solving it maybe two decades ago, gave up, and was reminded of the unsolved problem. But it's pretty damn straight forward, but I still got slogged down ...
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### Information in GFSK signal

I was measuring a Bluetooth LE Signal, particullary a Channel with center frequency 2402 MHz and Bandwidth of 2 MHz, 2401 - 2403 MHz. Those measurement points are just the highest peaks. In the ...
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### Why does BLE require twice the bandwidth of Bluetooth Classic?

Bluetooth Classic Basic Rate sends data at a rate of 1 Mbps using GFSK modulation in 1 MHz-wide data channels. Bluetooth Low Energy also transmits at that same data rate and modulation, however, it ...
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### Relation between Bandwidth and Baud-Rate for 8-PSK

I have a query on relationship between Baud Rate and Bandwidth for 8-PSK. In 8-PSK as 3 bits together form a symbol, so Bandwidth = 2R/3 , R is Bit Rate As bit ...
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### Interpolation of magnitude of discrete Fourier transform (DFT)

For example for peak frequency finding, it seems valid to use band-limited interpolation methods on the complex DFT bins, or separately on their real and imaginary parts and to calculate the ...
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### Does “keying on” a sine wave at a zero-crossing reduce its bandwidth?

I understand that a pure sine wave of infinite duration occupies no bandwidth, i.e. it is only the modulation of a carrier that gives it sidebands. Does the exact timing of a sudden modulation make ...
618 views

### Bandwidth and Bit rate

I'm kind of confused about digital transmission. Is the bandwidth occupied by some digital signal the Fourier spectrum of the bit (pulse) format,or the one determined by the bit rate?
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### How does one compute the band width of a signal in the time domain $x(t)$?

Sorry if this is a super easy question, I am really not a signals guy (more of a statistician, computer scientist). But I was trying to reconstruct/learn a sinusoidal function $x(t)$ with linear ...
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### What is the definition of the bandwidth of a signal?

I was reading over the famous Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem and I was trying to understand what the term bandwidth meant rigorously (exactly) with no ambiguity. In this site the define it as follow:...
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### Computing overall bitrate of a transmitter with a two chunks package

I'm programming a digital communication system in MATLAB and I have a two chunk package, let's say a header and a body, and I'm using a different channel code for each chunk, i. e. BHC1 and BCH2. But ...
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### Correct way to add AWGN to a signal

I have a signal, S whose bandwidth is bw Hertz and is sampled at fs Hertz. To contaminate it with a noise corresponding to SNR <...
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### What does $[-\pi \; \pi]$ band-limited signal mean?

I know that a band-limited signal is a signal which have a limited set of frequencies. What is then the relation between band limiting and $[-\pi \; \pi]$ since $-\pi$ and $\pi$ are related to ...
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### Why the bandwidth of the system with the minimum-order observer is higher than the full-order observer?

In Ogata's Modern Control Engineering (5th Ed., page 786) it says: The bandwidth of the system with the minimum-order observer is higher than that of the system with the full-order observer, ...
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### Bandwidth confusion

Let's imagine that I took a Fourier analysis of a random voice signal that I want to sample and plotted it's frequency components in frequency domain (frequency vs amplitude). Now I want to sample it. ...
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### What is the definition of small/large signal bandwidth?

What is the definition of 'small signal bandwidth' and 'large signal bandwidth'? If I google them, I only encounter them in an electrical context (transistors etc.). However, I am looking for a ...
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### Conditions for finite bandwidth

I'd like to know which conditions must be satisfied in order to get a signal with a finite bandwidth. Thank you for your time.
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### How does bandwidth relate to the bitrate?

This might be a really trivial question, but I can't wrap my head around it. In almost every textbook, we're told that bandwidth (among power and noise), is the factor for both range and bitrate. I'...
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### How does bandwidth affect a modulated digital signal? [duplicate]

I'm currently reading up on how the lower layers of the ISO/OSI model work and I don't quite understand how broadband communication works yet. Suppose I want to send some data from point A to point B ...
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### what does the statement “band limited signal of 5 KHz” mean

A band limited signal of $5$ kHz is observed at the output node whose sampling frequency is $600$ kHz. What is the minimum order of the filter? Does it mean: a signal that is from $0$ to $5$ kHz on ...
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### Uncertainty principle - Duration bandwidth principle

In one of NPTEL courses about time-frequency analysis, the professor said that the duration bandwidth principle is $\sigma_t^2 \sigma_\omega^2 \ge \frac{1}{4}$. He added that the formula making use ...
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### Confusion in Normalised Bandwidth of a signal

I know normalised bandwidth can be found from FFT plot of the signal. But I'm confused that at what stage I have to take the FFT. I mean first binary data is input to a convolutional encoder, then to ...
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### How do I calculate the bandwidth from a waveform?

Suppose I have a waveform $x(t)$ where $x(t) = 5 + 30\mathrm{cos}(2000\pi t) + 10\mathrm{cos}(6000\pi t)$ that is to be uniformly sampled for digital transmission, how do I calculate the bandwidth of ...
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### Bandwidth vs. sampling rate of DAC

What is the difference between the sampling rate and the bandwidth of a DAC? I have found in one paper a DAC speced as 15GHz 3dB bandwidth, and 64GS/s sampling rate, and I haven't been able to relate ...
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### bandwidth limited pulse,what window function is it?

I want to know what kind of shape a multiple cycle sine wave pulse ( or maybe the correct term is burst ) should have to have the narrowest bandwidth possible at given pulse width. In the laser ...
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### Infinite extent of spectrum, but also in time in Oppenheim's Discrete Time Signal Processing?

In Oppenheim's Discrete Time Signal Processing there's on p. 323 no limited band in both time and frequency - wouldn't that violate the Heisenberg Principle?
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### The essential bandwidth of a rectangular pulse

The problem is to estimate the essential bandwidth of a rectangular pulse \begin{equation} g(t) = \Pi(t/T), \end{equation} Where the essential bandwidth must contain at least $90\%$ of the pulse ...