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Questions tagged [bandwidth]

the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a contiguous set of frequencies

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73 views

How is frequency related to data rate?

How does (if it does) frequency affect/relates to Data Rate. Why for example using the same modulation, LoRa (in the physical layer), you get somewhere around 250kbps at 2.4Ghz and only 20kbps at ...
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43 views

What is the meaning of inverse signal bandwidth?

I have been studying the two ray model in communication systems. The text I'm studying has two signals, $u(t)$, which is Line of Sight and $u(t-t')$, which is the reflected signal. It quotes, ...
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41 views

Noise power and bandwidth

$$N=kTB$$ In this formula for calculating noise power, why do we use the total bandwidth of the system? I mean our signal is at $f_0$ carrier frequency, why is it effected by a large bandwidth and ...
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56 views

Minimum Channel Bandwidth for PCM

Please check if my answer to GATE IN 2010 question 11.20 is correct/can be improved upon. So, every $\frac{1}{f_s}$ sec, a sample is taken. The signal amplitude is quantized into $2^n$ levels such ...
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167 views

Passband vs Baseband Bandwidth

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies. A key characteristic of bandwidth is that any band of a given width can carry the same ...
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41 views

Bandwidth of the Derivative of a Message [duplicate]

If I have a message signal $m(t)$ and it has a bandwidth $B$. I know that the bandwidth of $m^N(t)$ is $NB$. But what is the bandwidth of $\frac{d m(t)}{dt}$? Thanks!
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122 views

Bounds of the difference of a bounded band-limited function

For a continuous signal (function), we have Bernstein inequality : $$ |{df(t)}/dt| \le 2AB\pi $$ where $A=\sup|f(t)|$ and $B$ is the bandwidth of $f(t)$. The question is: is there a relationship ...
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30 views

What is an intuitive understanding of the difference between the minimum required bandwidth and actual bandwidth?

When using for example, polar signaling of full width rectangular pulses, the bandwidth is equal to the pulse rate $Rb$, which is also the bit rate. $B=R_b$ for full width rectangular pulses. But ...
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156 views

Quantization level versus bandwidth [closed]

Why is it that increasing the number of quantization levels $L$ results in an increase in the signal's bandwidth?
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270 views

Bounds of the derivative of a bounded band-limited function

Let $f(t)$ be a function with properties: $$\begin{array}{ll} t\in\mathbf{R}&t\text{ is in reals}\\ f(t)\in\mathbf{R}\text{ for all } t&f(t)\text{ is in reals}\\ |f(t)|<A\text{ for all }t&...
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Why Shannon Theorem has nothing to do with frequency?

According to Shannon theorem $$C= B \log _2(1 + S/N)$$ My question is, why there is no frequency in this formula? Let's say we have 2 channels, both of them have same 20 MHz bandwidth, one is from ...
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44 views

Modulation and allocation in GSM900

I want to do one project and I just want to make sure that I've understood correctly. Human's voice frequency is around 85-255Hz. When we talk on phone, carrier is modulated with voice signal in ...
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202 views

Intersymbol interference due to limited channel bandwidth

What is the difference between limited-bandwidth induced intersymbol interference (ISI) and ISI due to multipath propagation. I noticed that the delay spread in indoor environment is in the range of ...
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36 views

How can I design a PI controller for a closed loop system, which requires a bandwidth equal to the natural frequency and a set Phase Margin?

For a school project I have to hand in a small report on a this problem. I've been studying so much for it but right now I'm just mixing up everything I've seen and just don't know where to start. I'd ...
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1answer
418 views

How Does the RMS of White Noise Change with Sampling Frequency?

There is an analog system which includes the continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE). With some .noise analysis the power-spectral density (PSD) of the noise in that system is provided. So let's not ...
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52 views

Finding essential bandwidth of the given function

Let the function to be $x(t) = e^{-2t}u(t)$. I want to find the essential bandwidth of the function to be the frequency at which $|X(jw)|$ drops to $1\%$ of its peak value. With a search, I found that ...
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1answer
106 views

Bandwidth of Information Signal

I have trouble finding the bandwidth of a signal. Say I have an info bearing signal m(t)=sinc(2t/pi). I found the fourier transform of the sinc function and found that the angular frequency was 1/pi. ...
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42 views

Separate speech signals that are bandlimitted

I have 2 kind of signals (refer figures) in a folder. One is band limited to 4khz and another is band limited to 8khz, both are with sampling frequency 16khz. I need to separate them. Any idea??
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183 views

Short length windowed sinc filter

I have a 50-60Hz signal being sampled at a frequency of 25 kHz & I'm trying to filter all frequencies beyond 70 Hz with a reasonable steep transition band (approx 4 Hz) & good attenuation (~40+...
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33 views

why we use positive side bandwidh when we calculate spectral efficiency

when we calculate spectral efficiency we devide bit rate by positive side bandwidth but signal possesses not only positive side band but also negative side band that is R bps : 2W Hz => R/W bps : ...
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54 views

Wavelet central frequency

What is the definition of the central frequency of a Wavelet and the bandwidth of a Wavelet? How do they affect the resultant waveform of the wavelet? Thanks.
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227 views

Condition for modelling noise as white noise

I am reading a book on Communication System by Simon Haykin. In the topic of white noise there is a paragraph "We may state that as long as the bandwidth of noise process at input of a system is ...
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Could 2 synchronised RX chains be used to receive a signal too wide for just one of them?

Say the goal is to demodulate a "wide" signal, e.g. 300 MHz wide. An SDR is available with a maximum RX bandwidth of 150 MHz (ADC sampling freq. limitation), but it comes with 2 RX channels sharing ...
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258 views

Bandwidth of product of two signals

POINT 1: According to convolution theorem, if g1(t) has a bandwidth B1 and g2(t) has a bandwidth B2, then product g1(t)g2(t) has a bandwidth = B1 + B2. POINT 2: Now, consider an AM waveform s(t)=g(t)...
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405 views

Calculating average noise power

Our professor assigned us homework in one of my grad courses: Assume a white noise source with a single-sided power spectral density of 100pW/Hz is put into a bandpass filter having an absolute ...
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101 views

Parseval's Theorm and Effective Bandwidth

This question says that RMS bandwidth (effective bandwidth) is defined based on the carrier frequency of a signal. This makes intuitive sense to me that the carrier frequency shouldn't determine the ...
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302 views

Understanding the definition of signal's bandwidth

In class, we have defined bandwidth of a signal as the difference between the maximal and minimal frequency. Also, our tutor explained that the bandwidth indicates how fast the signal is changing. ...
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1answer
245 views

Estimating the bandwidth of various signals

I am trying to estimate the bandwidth of different signals, with different modulations, as seen in a PSD graph. I've heard about a "$3\ \rm dB$ rule" in this context. I don't need extreme accuracy. ...
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107 views

The number of bits per symbol is less than one

For a channel of bandwidth B Hz and signal-to-noise ratio of S/N, i have used Shannon-formula to calculate the maximum channel capacity C. For transmitting at the nyquist baud rate (2 symbol/sec), ...
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1answer
199 views

“Capacity” concept in Shannon Theorem

I have a question about the Shannon Theorem. According to this theorem the maximum capacity of a link can be calculated with the formula: $$C=B\log_2(1+S/N)$$ where $B$ is the bandwidth and $S/N$ is ...
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1answer
60 views

Clarification on how bandwidth effects input signal

I know that the system bandwidth is the maximum range of frequencies that a system can handle. Is the reason that the input signal gets distorted as the bandwidth decreases a result of fewer segments ...
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539 views

How to calculate transfer rate and needed bandwidth

I have two questions: 1- If I want to transfer a photo via bluetooth, how should I find how long it takes to transfer? I mean the formula between the image size, bluetooth bandwidth and time. 2- If ...
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1k views

Time-Bandwidth Product

The following text is cited from a textbook, "Spotlight Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach", I would like to ask if anyone knows the proof to the following statements, as the ...
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397 views

How to calculate bandwidth of a wire, “air” or other channels?

I'm really curious of how engineers identify what is the frequency range that could be sent through "wire" as channel? Do they put wire in front of them and make test that consists of sending ...
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333 views

Information in GFSK signal

I was measuring a Bluetooth LE Signal, particullary a Channel with center frequency 2402 MHz and Bandwidth of 2 MHz, 2401 - 2403 MHz. Those measurement points are just the highest peaks. In the ...
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Why does BLE require twice the bandwidth of Bluetooth Classic?

Bluetooth Classic Basic Rate sends data at a rate of 1 Mbps using GFSK modulation in 1 MHz-wide data channels. Bluetooth Low Energy also transmits at that same data rate and modulation, however, it ...
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251 views

How does one compute the band width of a signal in the time domain $x(t)$?

Sorry if this is a super easy question, I am really not a signals guy (more of a statistician, computer scientist). But I was trying to reconstruct/learn a sinusoidal function $x(t)$ with linear ...
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What is the definition of the bandwidth of a signal?

I was reading over the famous Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem and I was trying to understand what the term bandwidth meant rigorously (exactly) with no ambiguity. In this site the define it as follow:...
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376 views

Bandwidth and Bit rate

I'm kind of confused about digital transmission. Is the bandwidth occupied by some digital signal the Fourier spectrum of the bit (pulse) format,or the one determined by the bit rate?
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Computing overall bitrate of a transmitter with a two chunks package

I'm programming a digital communication system in MATLAB and I have a two chunk package, let's say a header and a body, and I'm using a different channel code for each chunk, i. e. BHC1 and BCH2. But ...
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1answer
719 views

Correct way to add AWGN to a signal

I have a signal, S whose bandwidth is bw Hertz and is sampled at fs Hertz. To contaminate it with a noise corresponding to SNR <...
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2answers
570 views

What does $[-\pi \; \pi]$ band-limited signal mean?

I know that a band-limited signal is a signal which have a limited set of frequencies. What is then the relation between band limiting and $[-\pi \; \pi]$ since $-\pi$ and $\pi$ are related to ...
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1answer
144 views

Bandwidth confusion

Let's imagine that I took a Fourier analysis of a random voice signal that I want to sample and plotted it's frequency components in frequency domain (frequency vs amplitude). Now I want to sample it. ...
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1answer
59 views

Conditions for finite bandwidth

I'd like to know which conditions must be satisfied in order to get a signal with a finite bandwidth. Thank you for your time.
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How does bandwidth relate to the bitrate?

This might be a really trivial question, but I can't wrap my head around it. In almost every textbook, we're told that bandwidth (among power and noise), is the factor for both range and bitrate. I'...
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1answer
1k views

Uncertainty principle - Duration bandwidth principle

In one of NPTEL courses about time-frequency analysis, the professor said that the duration bandwidth principle is $\sigma_t^2 \sigma_\omega^2 \ge \frac{1}{4}$. He added that the formula making use ...
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How does bandwidth affect a modulated digital signal? [duplicate]

I'm currently reading up on how the lower layers of the ISO/OSI model work and I don't quite understand how broadband communication works yet. Suppose I want to send some data from point A to point B ...
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102 views

Bandwidth of a windowed function

I have three functions $f(\theta)=e^{a \cos (\theta)}, g(\theta)=\sin (n \theta)$ and $h(\theta)=f(\theta)g(\theta)$ where $a>0$, $n>0$ and $-\pi \le \theta \le \pi$. I know that the spectrum of ...
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Relation between Bandwidth and Baud-Rate for 8-PSK

I have a query on relationship between Baud Rate and Bandwidth for 8-PSK. In 8-PSK as 3 bits together form a symbol, so Bandwidth = 2R/3 , R is Bit Rate As bit ...
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1answer
142 views

Confusion in Normalised Bandwidth of a signal

I know normalised bandwidth can be found from FFT plot of the signal. But I'm confused that at what stage I have to take the FFT. I mean first binary data is input to a convolutional encoder, then to ...