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Questions tagged [autocorrelation]

Autocorrelation is the cross-correlation of a signal with itself.

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Correlation of vector signal

This is probably more of a mathematical question than a signal processing exclusive, but I hope somebody here knows an answer! I want to compute the autocorrelation of a signal, which is a vector (so ...
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Aperiodic Correlation function using FFT Method

Periodic correlation function between two binary sequences say x and y can be computed using FFT. corr_value = ifft(fft(x).*conj(fft(y)); Can some one please help on how to compute aperiodic ...
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PRN code design for satellite navigation system ( A-CDMA systems)

Satellite Navigation Systems are based on CDMA principle(asynchronous CDMA). It is observed that there are lot of PRN codes designed in the literature. The requirements of navigation systems is such ...
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Autocorrelation of sinc function

I'm having trouble on computing the autocorrelation of the sinc function I want to compute $$R_{hh}(\tau)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\operatorname{sinc}(t) \ \operatorname{sinc}(t-\tau) \ \mathrm{d}t$$ ...
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Equivalence of the Power Spectral Density definitions

I am trying to show the equivalence of the following Power Spectral Density definitions in Matlab: Definition 1: $$ P(\omega) = \sum_{k=-\infty}^{\infty} r(k)e^{-j\omega k} $$ Definition 2: $$ P(\...
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How to add noise with given autocorrelation to signal in Matlab?

My question is a mix of signal processing and Matlab coding. I have an FIR filter with added noise $w_n$ $$x_n=\sum_{m=0}^{N_h-1}h_mg_{n-m}+w_n.$$ Now the noise $w_n$ has the autocorrelation $$E[...
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Zero-padding vs. nonzero-padding in computation of auto-correlation with FFT

Isn't the usual zero-padding in the computation of the auto-correlation function with FFT just one of many possible extrapolations of the original signal? If I have a measured signal which has good ...
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Autocorrelation function and product of summations

Let $u[k]$ be a white gaussian noise with variance $\sigma^2$ and $y[k]=\sum\limits_{i=0}^q b_i u[k-i]$, that is a moving average model. I am trying to compute the autocorrelation function of $y[k]$: ...
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Finding period of a square wave with varying sampling frequency

I have a square wave (0-1.8V) with a varying sampling frequency (from a circuit simulator). It is also not a perfect square wave (the high and low signal could be very close to but not precisely zero ...
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Is there an algorithm for computing auto-correlation in a frame-based manner?

I am trying to find out if an algorithm similar to the Overlap-And-Add method that enables frame-based computation of convolution and cross-correlation exists. When I say frame-based computation I am ...
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Pitch detection, YIN, pYIN

So here is the "seminal" YIN paper: Cheveigne A, Kawahara H. - YIN, a fundamental frequency estimator for speech and music and the new, improved probabilistic YIN: Mauch M, Dixon S. - PYIN: A ...
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Interpreting Auto correlation results

I used xcorr function in Matlab to compute the autocorrelation of my signal. I obtained a graph, which is shown below. How to interpret this? I read that autocorrelation helps in finding the patterns ...
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On the spectral representation of deterministic and random signals

I went back to many references in order to fix some of the confusions that I have on many concepts in signal spectral representation. I concluded that: 1) Deterministic signals may be represented ...
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Relationship between the autocorrelations of X(t) and X(nt)

Defining: $X(t)$ WSS random process with autocorrelation function $R_{X}(\tau) = \mathbb{E}[X(t)X(t+\tau)]$. $Y[n] = X(nT)$ (sampling of $X$ at a rate $\frac1T$) with autocorrelation function $R_Y(\...
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Are there any signals with brickwall autocorrelation?

Are there any signals whose autocorrelation $R(\tau)$ has the following form? Assuming $\tau_c > 0$ and $R_0 > 0$ a constant, $$R(\tau) = \begin{cases}R_0, \text{ for $|\tau| < \tau_c$} \\ 0,...
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How to find a variance of sample sequence

I have a sequence such as $$r[n] = y[n]v[n]$$ $y[n]$ and $v[n]$ are zero-mean and statistically independent. I need to find a variance of $r[n]$ and show that it is white and equal to $\sigma ^2_y\...
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About using Walsh matrix as spreading sequence

I'm asking about some details about using the Walsh matrix as spreading sequence code. For example, suppose I'm using a $4\times 4$ Walsh matrix given by $$H = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 & 1 & ...
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Particular Correlation formula

I'm reading a book where the autocorrelation of white noise is expressed as: What is the term $Q(k)$ and why is is expressed as an average value of a dot product ?
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Difference between autocorrelations

M. H. Hayes calls in his book "Statistical digital signal processing" autocorrelation sequences $r[k]$. For optimal filters the desired autocorrelation has the index d -> $r_d[k]$. However, often ...
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Correlation between 2 signals of uneven dimensions

As a part of my work, I am trying to correlate the audio signal in a video with the pixels of each frame. The steps I follow are: Audio sampling rate and frame rate of the video are known. So, ...
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Simulate time series given temporal auto-correlation functions

Given a random process $x[n] \in \mathbb{R}$ (say of length $N$) and all correlation functions such as: \begin{align} \langle x[i]\rangle\\ \langle x[i]x[j]\rangle\\ \langle x[i]x[j]x[k]\rangle\\ \...
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Confusion about ensembles and averages in autocorrelation matrices

I just noticed that until now I often don't cared about the scaling of the autocorrelation Matrix in Matlab. I then checked with the book Statistical Digital Signal Processing from M. H. Hayes. There ...
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Autocorrelation

What is autocorrelation in real life? Any example? How does autocorrelation dependent on time difference? Here is Xt1 and Xt2 how comes \phi{tau}?
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Autocorrelation: numpy versus FFT

I have a series a of values (0 and 1) coming from a Brownian process with drift for which I am studying the autocorrelation. I used two methods: 1) numpy autocorrelation: ...
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Autocorrelation sequence in terms of Fourier transform of the underlying signal

Let $x(n)$ be a sequence of length $N$, which is zero outside the interval $(0,N-1)$. Let $X(k), k=0,1,\cdots,N-1$ be the FFT coefficients of $x(n)$, that is, $X(k)=\sum_{n=0}^{N-1}x(n) \exp\left( -\...
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Co-prediction of signals

Is there any plausible method to estimate or predict one signal, on the basis of known value of another signal, provided the two signals bear a strong correlation? For instance, the audio amplitude ...
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38 views

Can spectral density be a complex quantity?

I have a signal ($S(t)$) which is product of a Gaussian ($G(t)$) and a random phase function ($e^{i\theta(t)}$, here $\theta(t)$ is a random function), as shown below $S(t)=G(t).e^{i\theta(t)}$ If I ...
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How to deduce the shape of autocorrelation graphically?

I'm asking for your help in understanding if I have a rectangular function, so the autocorrelation for it will be triangular... and I can prove that graphically but this is time-consuming especially ...
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$E(X(t)X(t))=\sigma^2\delta(\tau)$ or $E(X(t)X(t))=\sigma^2$

(Question already asked on Math StackExchange) Let's say we have a white noise process $x(t)$ such that: $E(X(t)X(t+\tau))=N\delta(\tau)$ $E(X(t))=0$ In particular, with $\tau=0$, $E(X(t)X(t))=E(X^...
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Practical insightful time domain functions [closed]

This question might be a little bit different, but i am having hard time to find some sort of a list/book/website/advice, with very practical time domain functions that provides useful insgihts for a ...
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What does a star shaped autocorrelogram mean?

Using the data in the upper graph, I get the weird autocorrelogram of the lower graph:- I've never seen a autocorrelogram of this shape. They're usually flat along the x axis. Testing the code with ...
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How can faux correlated data be generated for testing or training?

There are one or two questions here that ask how to assess data correlation. The data tends to be empirical. Is there some tool or standardised technique for generating correlated data from scratch? ...
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Interpolation of missing audio signal in a video sequence

Suppose there is a video sequence and there are some frames for which the audio data is missing. I want to interpolate the missing audio data on the basis of the correlation of the audio signal with ...
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138 views

How to determine fundamental frequencies (beats/minute) of heartbeat? (matlab)

read = matfile('ECG.mat'); [cor, lags] = xcorr(read.ecg, read.ecg); read.Fs; So i have read.ecg (signal) and ...
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Why is the sound field intensity due to $K$ point sources given by $ I(p,\omega) = \sum_{k=1}^K \sigma_k^2(\omega) \delta(p - p_k)$?

I am trying to understand the following piece of text. I am not used to dealing with sound intensity and power so I'm not familiar with the derivation of the formula $(*)$ below. Statement: 1. We ...
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Problem understanding the Expectation Operator

I know that the Expectation Operator $E\{x\}$ four discrete values is $$ \sum_k \alpha Pr(x = \alpha_k)$$ and its very intuitive when speaking out a formula which contains the Expectation Operator. ...
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How to compute autocorrelation of signal defined by difference equations?

I have no experience with difference equations and I want to learn how to compute the following, but I found no resource online. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Find: $$\mathbb{E}\left[d[n]d[...
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Correlation of a signal

I have one sample for a signal. This sample is a vector of length 384. I need to calculate the correlation matrix for this signal,So I need many samples for the same signal. How can i generate these ...
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How to visualize the autocorrelation matrix and it's properties

Having a hard time wrapping my head around autocorrelation matrix as it applies to a spectral estimation problem like MUSIC or ESPRIT. If the signal vector contains a summation of sinusoids in noise, ...
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Fluctuation of autocorrelation of a signal due to signal's noise

I have a question about the fluctuation of autocorrelation of a signal due to signal's noise. I have a signal defined in $-1\leq t \leq 1$ as the following: $V(t)=kt+R(t)$, where $R(t)$ is the random ...
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Question on Levinson's proposed discrete form of Wiener filter

The whole foundation of Levinson's discrete version of Wiener filter is based on the assumption of stationarity of a time series, and aims to predict a value based on the past observed values. Now, if ...
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Finding the auto-correlation sequence $r_{xx}[k]$ for an AR(2) process

Consider the following recursive difference equation of a LTI system, where $v[n]$ is a white noise, zero-mean process with $\sigma_v^2 = 1$. $ x[n] = v[n] + 0.75x[n-1]-0.25x[n-2] $ I want to ...
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194 views

Confusion about PSD and RMS

Let's say I have a noise power-spectral-density (PSD) which is not flat and ranges from 0 to $f_1$ Hz in frequency. As we know, the total area under the PSD is equal to the total average power of the ...
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Does the auto-correlation function of stationary random process always converge?

The auto-correlation function of the stationary random process only depends on the time difference $\tau$. http://web.ntpu.edu.tw/~yshan/chapter6_han.pdf 64th slide of this lecture note mentions ...
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Wiener Filter in Frequency Domain: What it does to a specific Frequency?

As I understand Wiener filter in time domain tries to estimate a signal as close as possible to its (original) non-degraded signal using the degraded signal by white noise. $$H(\omega)=\frac{\Phi_{...
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While finding the ESD/PSD of a signal why we always prefer to find it via Auto-correlation function then the square of the FT of the signal? [closed]

In a video i saw that while calculating ESD or PSD of a signal time auto correlation function was used when it can be also done by the square of FT of the signal.Why we followed that approach even ...
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Image Interpolation Using the Yule Walker Equations

I have been studying about the Yule-Walker equations for prediction of a time series data from knowledge of past values of the series. Is there any way I can use the same in an image to exploit the ...
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Positive definites of correlation functions

Say I you have two time series, $x_k, k=1,2$ generated from two, possibly correlated, complex gaussian processes. The lag 0 and 1 auto-correlation estimate for the two time series is denoted $R_{0,k}, ...
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detection of periodicities in n-dimensional signals

Generally speaking, what analyses are necessary and sufficient for the detection of periodicities in an n-dimensional signal amounting to a discretely sampled density distribution over n-dimensional ...
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Why use $\chi^2$ test to determine the presence of white noise?

I want to test for the presence of broadband noise in a snapshot 1000 complex baseband samples recorded by a software defined radio. As a follow-up to this post, why was the $\chi^2$ test used? How ...