# Questions tagged [approximation]

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### How to save Fourier series approximated signal to a WAV file

I changed this Matlab/Octave code to approximate square wave by using combination of Fourier series and Fejér taper: ...
29 views

### How to estimate the modulation transfer function of images?

I'd like some way to estimate the modulation transfer function in images. This is the observed drop in amplitude vs increase in frequency of spatial details - nice illustration here: (from https://...
277 views

### How to determine precision needed for sin approximation used for sound synthesis?

I am doing some procedural sound synthesis in Java. I want to have a sine wave as one of the possible basic sounds. When experimenting with that, I have found the default Java ...
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### Is there a way in MATLAB to approximate an FIR filter using an IIR Filter? [duplicate]

I am a student trying to understand how this is possible. I've done some research on the web with not many sources showing up with solutions to this problem that are usable. What techniques are used ...
36 views

### Confusing regarding triangular wave vs square wave?

I am reading signal processing first by Mcclellan. In chapter 3, I came across the term "discontinous" as shown underlined in attached photo. Apparently "discontinuous" means having a gap/break but ...
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### “Improved” MZT/IIM type One pole LPF

Some time ago, while playing with all kind of approximation of common math functions, I came up to this idea to calculate a1 coefficient for a 1st order LPF filter: \begin{array}{l}a1=-(1+x+\frac12x^...
39 views

### Some difficult-to-approximate signals to test an signal extracting algorithm

I am searching for some strange signals in order to test an algorithm that I am developing. I've found an article by Donoho and Johnstone where they propose to test the algorithms using Blocks, Bumps, ...
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### Amount of exactly approximated samples with Padé approximation

I've already had some good discussion with Fat32 in this question yesterday. Today I'm confused again. The author of Statistical digital signal processing and modeling M.h. Hayes and Fat32 both ...
77 views

Given a signal $x[n] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]$. How many transfer functions can be found with Padé approximation which have a causal impulse response and start with those five samples. How many of them are ...
111 views

### Ratio of expected values of squares of errors in power quantities, in dB

An amplitude quantity $a$ is estimated by two estimators $\hat a_1$ and $\hat a_2.$ The error of estimator $\hat a_2$ is compared to that of $\hat a_1$. One possible comparison is the ratio of ...
495 views

### What's wrong with my implementation of the Matching Pursuit algorithm?

I have recently attempted to implement a simple version of the Matching Pursuit algorithm, following the description detailed on Wikipedia. Although the algorithm itself seems dead simple, my ...
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### z-Transform Methods: Definition vs. Integration Rule

The definition of the z-transform is defined as $z = e^{sT}$ where "s" is complex frequency for continuous-time systems and "T" is the sample period. Why are rules such as the forward rectangular ...
153 views

### Techniques to reject noisy neural network input

Suppose an artificial neural network is used to approximate a sine wave (shown in red in the graph below), given the linear input variable $x$ (scaled such that the ANN input is $x_{\rm nn}\in[-1;1]$)....
160 views

### Dimensional reduction from DWT with threshold

I have been trying to find out how can the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) be possible to reduce dimension of data. Then I saw the question which is seemingly related to my work: Feature extraction/...
62 views

### How to determine which Fouriers Series terms to use to approximate a signal?

I have a signal (a time-series of air temperature values) that I can approximate quite well with a Fourier series. However, the number of terms in the series grows rapidly, to the point that 30 - 40 ...
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### Wavelet transform: How to compute the initial coefficients when only samples are available?

In standard MRA we have that the space of functions at scale J can be expressed as $$V_j = V_0\oplus \left(\bigoplus_{j=0}^{J} W_j\right)$$ where $V_0$ is spanned by the orthonormal system of the ...
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### Approximation of Hilbert Transform Using Very Short Hilbert Transform FIR / IIR Filter

Hilbert transform is a quite sensitive topic here, since Gabor's paper, Theory of Communication, J. Inst. Electr. Engineering, London, 1946. Perhaps even more important than the Fourier transform. ...
106 views

### How to choose basis functions that contribute most efficiently per term to an approximation of an image f(x,y)?

GOAL: I would like to approximate some positive, scalar function, $f(x,y) > 0$, on a 2D field of finite size i.e. $x=[a,b],y=[c,d]$ OBSTACLE: I am familiar with the set of basis functions used ...
199 views

### Looking for a better algorithm for finding the slope of an input signal

I've got an input signal that while sloping up, approximately bounces off an imaginary line. I'm looking for the equation to that imaginary line. I have a method, but is very brute force and it ...
191 views

### Wavelet decomposition

For the following code, X=[2 2 3 100 4 0 98 100 90 2 3 67 98 0 6 6 89 9 21 78] [C,L]=wavedec(X,N,'db1'); where N is the ...
66 views

### Unexpected peak after up & down sampling

I am working on signals to check how approximation can change the results. I am testing on example that can change frequency from 22kHz to 20 KHz. I prepare this script in MatLab ...
131 views

### Second-order sections from complex coefficients

I have an impulse response ir that I need to approximate with an iir because of realtime requirements. For stability I want to break down the 10th order IIR generated with Steiglitz-Mcbride to biquads ...
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### How to determine best fit from two?

I'm studying some variances ($\sigma^2$), that in my case, they must depend by velocity squared $v^2$. So, in my experimental proofs, I have plotted a graph of $\sigma^2/v^2$, and I was hoping to ...
202 views

### MATLAB implementation Spline Fitting

Let $s(t)$ be a signal that can be approximated by a uniform spline function of order $K$ (say $K=2$): $$s(t)\approx\sum_{n\in \mathbb{Z}}c_n\beta_+^{(K)}(t-n)$$ Suppose that we know the ...
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### Calculating Signal Approximation Error (Theoretical signal - Real hardware signal)?

I've got a FIR filter, which I developed in IC. Now, when I got my results, I ended up with two signals: Theoretical signal calculated through MATLAB as a response to my input. Real response given by ...
299 views

### Standard deviation of Gaussian corresponding to perfect low pass filter [1,1]

For a time discrete signal, the rect-filter (for 1D signal [1,1]) is a perfect low pass filter. I was wondering, what is the best gaussian approximation of this filter? For a current problem, I ...
922 views

### How to use Expectation maximization to estimate poisson noise matlab [closed]

I delved into the state of the art of algorithms for Poisson noise estimation in order to estimate the variance, I found that the Expectation Maximization algorithm is very used and it is very ...
809 views

### Mathematical proof of relationship between derivative and convolution

What I'm looking for is the mathematical proof of why we can calculate derivatives as a simple convolution of a mask, and how do we get that mask? I know it has something to do with how the derivative ...
91 views

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### Using continuous verses discrete wavelet transform in digital applications

I am familiar with much of the mathematical background behind wavelets. However when implementing algorithms on a computer with wavelets I am less certain about whether I should be using continuous or ...
117 views

### Establishing the function of a decaying signal

I have a set of samples from a signal. The signal is erratic in behaviour at the beginning but then it settles down and oscillates around the value of 100 (the frequency of oscillation is not ...
659 views

### Approximating pixel location in scale space

I'm implementing a scale-space with o octaves and s scale levels in each octave. Each octave is half the size the previous. I have keypoints found in each octave, I need to approximate the real ...
3k views

### Estimate Taylor series coefficients from samples of a function

Say I have measurements of a function $y = y(x)$, sampled at $x_i$ with some noise, that could be approximated by a Taylor series expansion. Is there an accepted way of estimating the coefficients for ...
Assume the following first order IIR Filter: $$y[n] = \alpha x[n] + (1 - \alpha) y[n - 1]$$ How can I choose the parameter $\alpha$ s.t. the IIR approximates as good as possible the FIR which is ...
I need to implement an approximation to the inverse of $x^x$, i.e. the square super-root (ssrt) function. For example, $\mathrm{ssrt}(2) \approx 1.56$ means that $1.56^{1.56} \approx 2$. I'm not as ...