# Questions tagged [amplitude]

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### Adjusting pulse amplitude against fixed noise variance to achieve a given Eb/No

Given a short duration pulse of $n$ samples out of a frame of $L$ samples, and amplitude of each of these samples being $A$, and an AWGN channel with variance $\sigma ^{2} = 1$, how can I derive $A$ ...
2k views

### When concatenating sine waves, how do I phase shift in order to prevent "pops" caused by sudden jumps in amplitude?

I'm writing a synthesizer using numpy and python. I've run into a problem where concatenating sine waves causes 'pops' or 'clicks' when they are outputted to audio, say, via ...
28 views

### How to modify spectrograms so that there is no effect of amplitude on their classification?

Is there any way to bring different classes of spectrograms to comparable amplitude levels so that when they are used for classification, the deep learning algorithm focuses on other aspects (like the ...
25 views

### What can I do to improve the sound of a signal?

I want to improve the sound of my signal, I know I can do it by increasing or decreasing the amplitude of the signal itself. Are there any other ways to do this? How can I apply the Fourier transform ...
46 views

### How to compute data imbalance?

I have to compare amplitudes of two signal ("ideal " signal and "estimated" signal) and want to compute an amplitude imbalance For my calculation I used the following equation:  ...
23 views

### Does different frequency signal cause different voltage from antenna?

When antenna received signal,antenna generate voltage,then SDR convert voltage to I=amplitude*cos(t)and I=amplitude*sin(t). When ...
85 views

### Decrease of the signal amplitude and oscillation in the output of FIR filter (windowing method)

In order to truncate my signal in the frequency domain, I am applying a low pass filter with the windowing method. As a test, I chose the Hamming window. What is the cause of the oscillation at the ...
1 vote
99 views

### Is digital necessarily discrete in both amplitude and time?

Is digital necessarily discrete in both amplitude and time? Or rather it is necessarily discrete only in time (but not necessarily in amplitude)?
69 views

### Should I use IQ data or power data to compare 2 signals through similaritymeasures.dtw?

I choose similaritymeasures.dtw to compare experiment signal exp_sig and reference signal ref_sig. Both signals are I,Q data ...
83 views

### How do you find a specific frequency's volume corresponding to that signal's FFT?

I've been dabbling in FFT for awhile now and I came across a problem: We have a signal comprised of two different frequencies A and B. Frequency A is much louder than frequency B; frequency A's ...
91 views

### Extract amplitude values from a wav file

I would like to extract the amplitude value from a wav file. Using Python I can extract the raw data into an array. How do I go about extracting the amplitude value of each sample?
1 vote
30 views

### 0/1 dB normalization using clamp function

I would like to perform dB normalization on audio data to make less loud sound louder and to make unusually loud sound less loud, before feeding them into neural networks. I came across this function: ...
99 views

### Why does adding a high-pass or low-pass EQ increase volume?

The following three screenshots show the max volume levels (indicated above the VU meter) of Cuckoo by Tipper if played with: No EQ: -0.5db Headroom High Pass EQ: +2.5dB over Low Pass EQ: +0.4dB ...
131 views

### 50Hz sine wave precise amplitude measurement

I have a 50Hz sine wave(mains voltage divided to the full-scale voltage of the ADC) sampled at 4kHz with not much noise in it. I want to measure precisely the peak-peak voltage of the sine. My first ...
1 vote
45 views

### how make an equation of a procedure?

Good day to everyone, i have frequency spectrum i selected top 10 peaks of that spectrum i give weightage from 1 to 10 to top 10 frequencies by multiplying the corresponding amplitude by weightage ...
1 vote
34 views

### FInd the amplitude function to a system

I'm studying a course in signal analysis and have come across an exercise where I find the analytical part a bit tricky. I am to find the amplitude function $|H( f )|$ for a system with the impulse ...
1 vote
38 views

I am studying a course in signalanalysis and have run into som trouble with a exercise. I am to dimension the circuit below in such a way that the DC-amplification is 1 and that the frequencies $\... 0 votes 1 answer 68 views ### Can FFT tells us existance of same frequencies with different phases? So I know that applying FFT on a time-domain signal, shows which frequency components exists and what amplitudes each frequency signal has. My question is, suppose the signal contains same frequency ... 0 votes 1 answer 54 views ### Calculating power of brain signals I have a dataset that contains EEG (or MEG) recordings of brain signals during some cognitive tasks. Each row, shows the source estimates of neurons in a particular region. source estimate contains ... 1 vote 1 answer 126 views ### How is sampling affecting this sine wave? I am trying to create a sine wave in python, but when I graph it, it looks like this: here is the code I used to make the signal: ... 1 vote 1 answer 133 views ### Bandpass filter equivalent for amplitude I have a signal where I am using a bandpass filter to limit the frequency range. I am also interested in filtering the remaining frequencies (after bandpass filtering) within the signal by their ... 0 votes 1 answer 86 views ### Fine frequency correction : grouping and finding max amplitude inside a group I work on phase and frequency estimation algorithm. Currently I am working on a derivation and determination of the Doppler shift( dF – frequency step). For each dF, The following algorithm was ... 0 votes 1 answer 45 views ### Amplitude / gain of difference of 2 known FIR low-pass filters Given a discretely sampled sinusoidal signal (frequency$1/40$), and 2 Simple Moving Averages (SMA), better known as FIR low-pass filters of order e.g.$10$and$21$, it can easily be calculated what ... 0 votes 1 answer 34 views ### RMS Amplitudes of voltage I am looking here at the course of current fluctuations and have calculated the RMS values, but somehow it seems strange to me: with the black line there are small fluctuations, but the RMS value is ... 0 votes 0 answers 53 views ### Emulating tape distortion of low-level audio signals I'm working on a tape echo emulation in Reaktor, and I've based the frequency response, tape speed warble, high-amplitude saturation and tape hiss on a paper I found about the Roland Space Echo. ... 3 votes 4 answers 372 views ### Amplitude of the fft is less than what is expected This is my MATLAB code ... 1 vote 1 answer 490 views ### How to obtain the exact value of wavelength from a 2D FFT amplitude vs wavenumber plot like it is obtainable from 1D FFT amplitude vs wavenumber plot? I have a two dimensional multi modal spatial signal generated from a MATLAB code using sinusoidal functions of different wave numbers, amplitudes and phases. What I want to know is that if I have the ... 0 votes 1 answer 70 views ### Amplitude decrease in FFT at higher frequency for multisine I am adding sine signals with different frequencies but same amplitude=100. Sampling frequency is 50MHz. I am not getting 100 in frequency domain for frequency 787KHz. At 1K, 3K I am getting 100 ... 1 vote 1 answer 241 views ### How to compute correct phase in FFT even after applying phase unwrap and zeroing round off error? I am converting a time-domain synthetic 1D signal to frequency domain using MATLAB fft. In the frequency domain, the amplitude vs frequency plot is coming reasonable which means it is showing the ... 0 votes 2 answers 182 views ### Amplitude spectrum (transfer function) of signal? I have one question related to finding amplitude spectrum (transfer function) of signal knowing that output signal is time derivative of input signal. I have the answer graph but I don't understand ... -1 votes 1 answer 237 views ### What is the x and y axis showing for this matplotlib.pyplot histogram of a .wav file? The python code below generates a histogram from a .wav file, but what exactly does the histogram show? Is the x axis amplitude binned by sampling rate? Is the y axis a count of how many samples are ... 0 votes 0 answers 157 views ### Instantaneous amplitude of a constant frequency sine wave? I am playing around with the Hilbert transform using Python's scipy.signal.hilbert package to better understand what the various instantaneous properties are given different input signals. One input ... -1 votes 1 answer 60 views ### Discussion of simulation results of a signal sequence: amplitude I need your help in understanding if the simulation result is correct. I have simulated a random BPSK sequence that was upsampled and filtered with a raised cosine filter. The length of the filter is ... 1 vote 1 answer 111 views ### Calculating transmitter power from spectral density I want to find out what is the real transmit power of my USRP 2922, unfortunately the only results I get when looking at the spectrum analyzer is the spectral power density. These are the results of ... 0 votes 1 answer 62 views ### What equation predicts the amplitudes of harmonics from a square/triangle/sawtooth/pulse oscillator? I have seen pictures like this which depict the shapes of amplitudes from the various common types of audio oscillators: Similar pictures of spectra are shown here. I am attempting recreating these ... 0 votes 1 answer 44 views ### Is there an equation that will graph the shape or predict the maximum amplitude of a single sample impulse fed through a One-Pole LPF? If you feed a single sample impulse of a given amplitude through a One-Pole LPF you get an envelope that looks like this: The output of the LPF from its peak will settle into an exponential decay ... 0 votes 1 answer 84 views ### How to describe voltage fluctuations I am looking for a way to describe the properties of voltage fluctuations - is the RMS amplitude a suitable measure? Attached is a screenshot showing the random current fluctuations (in the case of ... 0 votes 1 answer 66 views ### Find which signal was transferred in 32QAM I've been assigned to solve a problem for 32QAM signals. The thing is, there are little to none sources in my native language to get any decent information on the topic. The problem is (in its ... 0 votes 2 answers 114 views ### How to quantify amplitude of oscillations in marginally stable systems? Transfer function pole on the Imaginary axis indicates that the system is marginally stable which in time domain can be represented as a sinusoidal motion with constant amplitude and frequency of the ... 0 votes 1 answer 127 views ### Relationship between amplitude and sampling rate I'm loading a signal with librosa in python. With the original sample rate of 22050 Hz, i get the following waveplot: When i choose to resample my signal with the sample rate of 512 Hz, i get the ... 0 votes 2 answers 1k views ### Amplitude modulation vs sampling rate? As a sampled tone's frequency nears$f_s / 2$, amplitude modulation grows apparent: ("Actual" curve in grey; blue is what we get if taking samples (dots) "at face value"). This is ... 1 vote 0 answers 148 views ### (Newbie question) Calculation DC-offset and RMS Being a newbie on this topic I beg you to be indulgent to me if my questions should be kind of "too" simple ;-) For doing automatic analysis on my audio material I started calculating the ... -1 votes 1 answer 405 views ### Why the bandwidth in frequency spectrum of AM wave is 2fm and not 2fc? We know, the instantaneous voltage of AM wave is: ... -2 votes 1 answer 190 views ### How do decibels scale with wave amplitude? I know the decibel scale is logarithmic in nature. Given that at 1V amplitude the power of the sound generated by this wave is 80dB, what would the dB be for the wave with amplitude 0.4V? I'm trying ... 0 votes 1 answer 94 views ### why does the additive synthesis method for a triangle wave require amplitude scaling by 8/pi^2? I had to make a bunch of band limited digital triangle waves recently, so I went to (where else) wikipedia for the equations. I noticed that there is a constant amplitude scalar of ... 0 votes 0 answers 398 views ### RMS of signal vs average amplitude I am trying to estimate the average amplitude of some signal with frequency 6 Hz, sampled at ~300 Hz. See figures for a part of the signal and its dft calculated using matlab. I estimate the average ... 0 votes 0 answers 19 views ### Equalization of ultrasonic transducer [duplicate] I am working with ultrasonic transducers with frequencies 100 kHz, one for transmission one for reception. The transmitted signals are chirps. I would like to measure the time of flight between ... 0 votes 0 answers 32 views ### modulation depth When a value for the power dissipated by an AM signal is given, and the depth of modulation is also given. Then you are told to find the modulation depth required to increase the power to a higher ... -1 votes 2 answers 207 views ### Minimum value of G (Amplitude) that guarantees an error probability of at least$10^{-2}\$ in a 32-PAM transmission system

pretty much new here. This question comes from an Online course quiz which i have already completed but cant seem to get a good sleep over, just because i cant figure it out. Below is the question ...
1 vote