A phase screen is a concept used in wave optics to model the statistical properties of wavefront aberrations caused by a medium. In the context of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence, for instance, the phase screen is used to simulate the random, turbulent fluctuations in the refractive index of the atmosphere. These fluctuations scatter the light and can cause phase aberrations, leading to effects like star twinkling or image blurring in telescopes.

More generally, phase screens can also be used to model wave propagation through other types of random media, not just atmospheric turbulence. A phase screen is indeed a discrete model, and it can be used in conjunction with path integrals for waves in random media, which provides a continuous model. The phase screen approximates the continuous random medium as a series of discrete layers, each with its phase aberrations. The overall effect on the wave is then computed by summing (or integrating) over these layers.

Python aotools module, it's a library designed to aid in adaptive optics (AO) and wavefront sensing simulations. This library contains a number of different tools for creating wavefronts and phase screens, as well as for analyzing them. While aotools doesn't specifically implement path integrals for waves in random media, it can certainly be used in combination with other tools to perform such calculations.

aotools documentaion said that:

  • aotools.turbulence.phasescreen.ft_phase_screen(r0, N, delta, L0, l0, FFT=None, seed=None) Creates a random phase screen with Von Karmen statistics.(Schmidt 2010)

  • aotools.turbulence.phasescreen.ft_sh_phase_screen(r0, N, delta, L0, l0, FFT=None, seed=None) Creates a random phase screen with Von Karmen statistics with added sub-harmonics to augment tip-tilt modes.(Schmidt 2010)

  • aotools.turbulence.infinitephasescreen.PhaseScreenVonKarman(nx_size, pixel_scale, r0, L0, random_seed=None, n_columns=2) A “Phase Screen” for use in AO simulation with Von Karmon statistics.

  • aotools.turbulence.infinitephasescreen.PhaseScreenKolmogorov(nx_size, pixel_scale, r0, L0, random_seed=None, stencil_length_factor=4) A “Phase Screen” for use in AO simulation using the Fried method for Kolmogorov turbulence.

There is an optical_propagation.ipynb file in the aotools repository that uses a phase screen to simulate optical progagation.

My question is:

Looking for papers about applications of using phase screen to model space laser communication. Which are the most influential papers in this research topic?



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