In theory, it can be possible to tap off some point in the analog chain to do what you want. Often, receivers have a superheterodyne structure, where the RF signal of interest is downconverted to some fixed intermediate frequency, after which further signal processing is performed to demodulate the signal and obtain the information encoded in it. That would probably be the best place to capture the view of the signal that you're looking for.
In practice, however, this is not likely to be possible. Modern WiFi receivers are highly integrated. It is likely that the receiver in your laptop consists of an antenna and a single-chip integrated circuit that performs all of the responsibilities of the receiver, analog and digital. Thus, there wouldn't be any spot to tap in order to get the view of the receiver that you want; everything is within a single integrated circuit package.