from a course in signal processing, I know some radio propagation models such as Free-space path loss, Okumura model, Hata model, and COST Hata model. They applied to a range of frequencies for up to 2 GHz.

5g/6G frequency range is more than 2 GHz, 6G is THzband

What model do you use to describe 5G and 6G propagation links?

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ The 3GPP publishes several models. I don't have a link at hand, but you can find them on their website. $\endgroup$
    – MBaz
    Feb 17, 2023 at 13:35
  • $\begingroup$ "6G is in THz band". Um, no. 6G has not even started to be standardízed (as of June 2023). Marketing material claims it's going to be this or that, depending on who wants to sell you which idea in order to invest in their company or research institution. $\endgroup$ Jun 21, 2023 at 9:10

2 Answers 2


You can use path loss model in 3GPP TR 38.901 for the frequency range from 0.5 GHz to 100 GHz.


Radio propagation in 5G and 6G networks is characterized by a different set of models compared to lower frequency bands. The higher frequency bands used by 5G and 6G systems exhibit significant attenuation and signal blockage due to atmospheric absorption, scattering, and diffraction. Additionally, millimeter-wave signals used in 5G and 6G systems are more susceptible to path loss due to the shorter wavelengths and the need for more line-of-sight (LOS) links.

Some of the commonly used models to describe 5G and 6G propagation links include:

  1. Ray tracing models: These models simulate the propagation of electromagnetic waves by tracing the rays as they interact with different surfaces in the environment. They are particularly useful for predicting propagation in urban environments with complex building structures.

  2. Geometric models: These models use statistical methods to predict the signal strength based on the location of the transmitter and receiver, the frequency, and the environment. They are often used for outdoor propagation modeling.

  3. Stochastic models: These models use random processes to model the variability of the signal strength due to multipath propagation. They are often used in conjunction with other models for more accurate predictions.

  4. Channel sounding measurements: These measurements involve sending a signal from a transmitter and measuring the response at the receiver. The measurements can be used to extract channel characteristics such as path loss, delay spread, and Doppler shift.

Overall, a combination of different models and measurements are often used to describe 5G and 6G propagation links, as the propagation characteristics can vary significantly depending on the environment and frequency band.


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