I was trying to simulate data for a 2 pole low pass filter inorder to solve with kalman filter to estimate the true states. With the below code I was unable to generate true states that look like sin function. I took x(t) = A0sin(wct) with wc = 2pi*fc, fc is cutoff frequency. Can some one help me regarding this?

I am trying to simulate a sinosoid and here how the result looks: result of code

The simulated data of state space model does not look like a sinsoid (x(t)). Can someone guide if I am looking the result worng way?

F =

    1.0000    0.0001
   -0.0012    1.0000


ans =

   1.0000 + 0.0004i
   1.0000 - 0.0004i

The state space model looks like

\begin{eqnarray} X_k &=& F X_{k-1}+ q_k \nonumber \\ Z_k &=& H X_k + \nu_k \end{eqnarray}

clear all; close all; clc;

% Define the parameters
A0 = 1;
fc = 0.5;
w = 2*pi*fc;

% Define the continuous-time state-space representation
A = [0, 1; -w^2, 0];

H = [1, 0];

% Convert the continuous-time state-space representation to a discrete-time state-space representation
fs = 8192;
Ts = 1/fs;
F = expm(A*Ts);

% Preallocate the arrays for the state and the measurements
N = 3*fs;
x_array = zeros(2,N);
z_array = zeros(1,N);

VarMnoise = 0.15;
vk = (sqrt(VarMnoise)*randn(N,2)); 

VarqNoise =0.25; % Variance of Q (proportinal to height of A0);
qk = (sqrt(VarqNoise)*randn(N,1)); 

% Initialize the state
x = [0; 0];

% Generate the measurements
for k = 1:N
    x = F*x + qk(k,:);
    z = H*x + vk(k);
    % Store the state and the measurements
    x_array(:,k) = x;
    z_array(k) = z;

% Plot the results
t = Ts*(0:N-1);
plot(t, x_array(1,:), 'LineWidth', 2);
hold on;
plot(t, z_array, 'LineWidth', 2);
legend('State', 'Measurements');
xlabel('Time (s)');
  • $\begingroup$ "I was unable to" -- how? Please edit your question with the plots that you did generate, and tell us how what you see doesn't match what you expect. Printing out your calculated $\mathbf F$ and it's eigenvalues would be useful, too. $\endgroup$
    – TimWescott
    Commented Feb 12, 2023 at 23:56
  • $\begingroup$ Hi @TimWescott, I edited the quesiton and updated with plots. I am expecting to simulate a sinsoid that looks like x(t) = sin(w0*t). But the plots looks too vague. Or I might be interpreting things a wrong way fro the plots. $\endgroup$
    – Sagar
    Commented Feb 13, 2023 at 7:21
  • $\begingroup$ Are you after generating Sine like signal using a linear state model like in Linear Kalman? $\endgroup$
    – Royi
    Commented Feb 26, 2023 at 6:58

1 Answer 1


You have a zero-damping (hopefully) harmonic oscillator with a noise input, starting with both states equal to zero. It's period is two seconds and you're only simulating it for three seconds. Try giving it a run time of at least 20 seconds (10 periods) -- that should give you some opportunity to see something interesting.

Note that because it's an undamped oscillator fed with noise, it's amplitude will be the absolute value of a random walk function.

Finally, you're probably just exceeding the precision of your output, but you may want to check that abs(eig(F)) - 1 is very close to zero, and isn't positive. It's almost a doesn't-care because it's a nonstationary process with, ultimately, an infinite variance, but there is a difference between a random walk and a slowly growing exponential, at least eventually.


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