Zero-padding doesn't make it possible to resolve more information than is present in the original signal, but it can make it easier to visually interpret the information that has been extracted. The situation is somewhat analogous to the difference between displaying a simple connect-the-dots plot of a 1024-sample capture of a sine wave whose frequency is 511/1024 times the sample rate, versus filtering the captured waveform with a perfect brick-wall filter. Both the original captured waveform and the brick-wall-filtered output will accurately record that if the original signal has no components above Nyquist, it must have been a sine wave with frequency 511/1024 times the sample rate, but the connect-the-dots output will "look" more like the superposition of a 511/1024 wave and a 513/1024 wave (which in turn looks like a modulated 512/1024 wave).
Depending upon what is being done with the results of the convolution or reconstruction, such filtering may or may not make a signal more useful. If one is trying to capture a square wave, a brick wall filter will produce a signal with transient spikes that extend beyond the swing range of the original signal. Use of such a filter before sampling may cause the result to more accurately represent the frequency content of the original signal than would using a Bessel filter with a gentler roll off, but would be counter-productive if one is interested in measuring the peak voltage in the original signal.