Someday I have suddenly got wondered how sounds are recorded and reproduced. I searched a little bit but the information I got was composed of difficult words and contents, so I couldn't understand that.
According to what I've read, the reason sounds can be reproduced is because of a vibration of diaphragm(?). But I think that doesn't make sense, because how one thing can reproduce various sounds having different waveforms? To me, it sounds like that violins can produce sounds of flutes.
(Of course in this video a piano imitates a human voice, but what I'm talking about is a waveform, not a synthesis of waves. (I have totally no idea how a piano can make a human voice, but my guess is as follows: splitting a recorded sound over time → mimicking that short wave by using piano sounds))
After thinking for a while, I realized that my question was divided into 3 parts and I would like to know how all of the questions are achieved in analog and digital manners.
(1) Capturing 'what' of sounds? (recording) // Maybe sound pressure? volume(amplitude)? but how?
(2) How are the recorded data stored?
(3) How can the recorded data be reproduced into the real sound?
I read that digital sound recording is achieved by sampling, quantization, and encoding but I think only the first one is related to this question. As I commented on (1), sampling what and how?
Currently I'm absolutely seriously curious about it. I really would like to know. It would be appreciated if you share some of your knowledge to me. Thank you for reading this long question. (Please let me know if this place is not a right place to ask this kind of question.)