Uncertainty IS NOT determined by the sampling frequency (i.e., 100Hz) only.
Uncertainty is mostly determined by both the Bandwidth of the signal you sampled (as stated by Marcus Muller) and the sampling frequency.
In fact, the uncertainty between sampled peaks can be solved by properly designed interpolation (or DAC) as long as the sampling theorem is met. The main reason is depicted as follows.
Although Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem state that no theoretical reconstruction loss as long as the sampling frequency is twice larger than the bandwidth. But, YOU NEED TO RECONSTRUCT THE SAMPLED SIGNAL before the temporal analysis. Most of the analyzers forget to reconstruct (interpolate) their sampled signal while analyzing.
This sample code sample a simulated 2 Hz analog signal,x_a, (with sampling rate 1500 Hz) to a discrete-time signal,x_d, with 5 Hz sampling rate (nearly Nyquist rate) and then reconstruct this back,x_r.
%% This code simulate the AD/DA processing discussed in Chapter 4.8.3 
close all; clear all;
analog_fps = 1500;
analog_window_time = 3; %sec
t = 0:1/analog_fps: analog_window_time-1/analog_fps;
digital_fps = 5;
n = downsample(t,analog_fps/digital_fps);
% ADC: Quantizer
X_m = 1; % Range
B = 10;% Bit number.
%% Signal generation
freq_hz = 1; % Hz.
x_a_1 = 0.5*cos(2*pi*freq_hz*t+0.1);
% add a small high-frequency component as asked.
signal_freq = 2; %Hz
x_a_2 = 0.5*cos(2*pi*signal_freq*t+pi/2);
x_a = x_a_1 + x_a_2;
x_s = downsample(x_a,analog_fps/digital_fps);
% Quantizing (abs of input value should not over 1)
% x_d = Quantizing(x_s,B,X_m); % A For complete ADC, a quantizing should
% be added here.
x_d = x_s; % For basic case, we skip the quantizing here.
% up sample / DAC
x_up = upsample(x_d,analog_fps/digital_fps);
% LPF (Reconstruction Filters)
h = intfilt(analog_fps/digital_fps,4,0.9);
% please not the parameter 0.9, ideally should be 1 for Nyquist rate.
% 0.9 here is the ratio of Nyquist.
% Given known limit band signal, a shorter ratio can enhance SNR by oversampling.
% (i,e, here I filterout the freq larger than 2.5(Nyquist rate) * 0.9 = 2.25Hz)
x_r = filter(h,1,x_up);
x_r(1:floor(mean(grpdelay(h)))) = ;
x_r = [x_r zeros(1,floor(mean(grpdelay(h))))];
title('analog signal (1500Hz) v.s. digital signal (5Hz) v.s. Reconstructed signal (1500Hz)');
If you forget to interpolate, the uncertainty of x_d is very high!! However, as long as you properly interpolate the x_d, you will obtain the x_r where the uncertainty is much much smaller.
To sum up, as long as the band-limited signal is sampled higher than the Nyquist frequency, properly reconstruction (interpolation) can theoretically reduce the uncertainty to a very small amount (which depends on the interpolation filters you designed). The interpolation filter sample I provided above is FIR and zeros phase filter, which means finite impulse response (i.e., no error propogation and phase distortion).
DO NOT FORGET to RECONSTRUCT YOUR SIGNAL, or you will overestimate the uncertainty.