0
$\begingroup$

MATLAB's icwt docs state inversion to be done by a single integral:

$$ f(t) = 2 \Re e\left\{ \frac{1}{C_{\psi, \delta}} \int_0^\infty \left< f(t), \psi(t) \right> \frac{da}{a} \tag{1} \right\} $$

Where does this expression come from, and how is integration over $b$ (translation) eliminated (as in Wiki's formula)? Does it hold if computing discretely over log-distributed $a$ (e.g. $(2^{1/32})^{[1, 2, ...]}$)?

$\endgroup$
0
$\begingroup$

The formula is premised on the wavelet being analytic, or being nonzero only over non-negative frequencies: ${\hat\psi} (\omega < 0) = 0$. (Note all wavelets also have ${\hat \psi (0)}=0$ per the admissibility criterion). From Daubechies et al,

$$ \begin{align} \int_0^\infty W_f(a, b) a^{-1} da & = \frac{1}{2\pi} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \int_{0}^{\infty}{\hat f}(\xi) \overline{ {\hat \psi}(a\xi)} a^{-1} da d\xi \tag{1a} \\ &= \frac{1}{2\pi} \int_0^\infty \int_0^\infty {\hat f}(\xi) \overline{ {\hat \psi} (a\xi)} e^{jb\xi} a^{-1} da d\xi \tag{1b} \\ &= \int_0^\infty \overline{ {\hat \psi}(z)} \frac{dz}{z} \cdot \frac{1}{2\pi} \int_0^\infty {\hat f}(\xi) e^{jb\xi} d\xi \tag{1c} \\ \end{align} $$

where a rather confusing change of variables was replaced with a clearer one, $z=a\xi,\ dz=\xi da$. Note that this c.o.v. is only valid if integrals share limits, which is enabled by $\psi$'s analyticity; otherwise, $z$ would integrate $-\infty $ to $\infty$, but $z$ includes $a$, which only spans $0$ to $\infty$. An identity was also utilized in splitting integrals.

Assuming $f$ is real, we have ${\hat f(\xi)} = \overline{\hat f (-\xi)}$, thus from $0$ to $\infty$,

$$ \frac{1}{4\pi} \Re e \left\{ \int_0^\infty {\hat f(\xi)} e^{jb\xi} d\xi \right\} = f(b), $$

and setting $C_\psi = \int_0^\infty \overline{ {\hat \psi (z)}} z^{-1} dz$ thusly derives

$$ \begin{align} f(b) &= \frac{1}{2} \Re e \left\{ \frac{1}{C_\psi} \int_0^\infty W_f(a, b) a^{-1} da \right\} \tag{2a} \\ &= \frac{1}{2} \Re e \left\{ \frac{1}{C_\psi} \int_0^\infty f \star \overline{\psi_a(b)} \frac{da}{a} \right\} \tag{2b} \\ &= \boxed{ \frac{1}{2} \Re e \left\{ \frac{1}{C_\psi} \int_0^\infty \left< f(t), \psi(t) \right> \frac{da}{a} \right\} } \tag{2c} \\ \end{align} $$

Since $W_f$ sweeps $b$ over all $t$, above equivalently holds for $f(t)$.


The paper you linked uses $a^{-3/2}$ -- Indeed, as it assumes an L2 norm on the wavelet, whereas MATLAB uses L1; further info can be found here.

What about the $\delta$? -- The $\delta$ is from MATLAB writing the expression as a special case of the more general inverse, as it shows above near it, with $\left<f, g\right>$, which is derived here.

and the $2 \Re e$? -- Good question - perhaps MATLAB's $C_{\psi, \delta}$ is a bit different, but per above definition we clearly divide by two, not multiply. If in doubt, try both.


Interpretation: it helps to observe that $b$ in all derivations can be replaced with a constant - so the relation holds pointwise; if we integrate along $a$, i.e. a column of the 2D time-frequency representation, we recover the function at that point, $f(b)$.

Notice in the double-integral iCWT we use a dual wavelet to "undo" the inner product with the CWT wavelet, analogous to $e^{+j\omega t}$ in $\mathcal{F}^{-1}$; here, we don't use any inverting kernel - the transform undoes itself when integrated over all scales. This implies some symmetry property on the wavelet $\psi$ in encoding information across scales - though I'm unsure how this exactly works out; the most important is analyticity which permits this in the first place, so one may search there for an answer.


Discretized case with exponentially distributed $a$

From same page of linked paper, the discretized linear case reads

$$ f(b) \approx \frac{1}{2} \Re e \left\{ C_\psi^{-1} \sum_k W_f (a_k, b) \frac{(\Delta a)_k}{a_k} \right\}, \tag{3} $$

with $(\Delta a)_k$ taking role of $da$. For the linear case, $(\Delta a)_k = \Delta a$, but not for the log case, as the increment size increases for greater $k$. That's the only distinction between log and linear.

In practice, however, it's better to directly use the discretized log-scaled transform - which derives as follows:

$$ \begin{align} & z = e^a, \ dz = a da \\ & \frac{da}{a^2} = \frac{d \ln (z)}{z} \tag{4} \end{align} $$

Suppose $z(a) = 2^{a/32}$. Note that the log-plot of an exponential scale is linear, so the difference $\Delta(\ln (z))$ or $d(\ln (z))$ is constant, and equal to $\ln (z(1))da$. To better see this, let's derive directly for this example, using $n_v$ for "number of voices":

$$ z(a) = 2^{a/n_v} \rightarrow dz(a) = z \frac{\ln(2)}{n_v} da = \ln(a_0)da \tag{5} $$

When discretizing, $da=1$, and we end up with

$$ \boxed{f[] \approx \frac{\ln (a_0)}{2 C_\psi} \Re e \left\{\sum_{k=1}^{K} \frac{1}{a_0^k} W_f (a_0^k, .) \right\} } \tag{6} $$

same as Mallat Eq 4.67 (note his derivation is for double-integral, but same scaling argument applies here).

$\endgroup$

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.