# Why i am not getting low pass output despite the fact that my code is for Low pass?

I have tried to make a function to implement Low pass filter using butter worth technique,and i have taken code from different places in article 8.3 of proakis book,"DSP Using Matlab 3rd Ed" I have made a single function combining all those code sections ,my function is running and give correct output [C,B,A] matrix as per book,but my plot has reverse direction(My plot appears to be of High pass) while i intended in my design low pass

My code is below:

function buttr_low_pass
%main function body
clc;clear all;close all
Wp = 0.2*pi; Ws = 0.3*pi; Rp = 7; As = 16;
% Analog filter design:
[b,a] = afd_butt(Wp,Ws,Rp,As)
freqz(b,a)
[C,B,A] = sdir2cas(b,a)

%definitions of called/used functions
function [C,B,A] = sdir2cas(b,a);

% DIRECT-form to CASCADE-form conversion in s-plane

% -------------------------------------------------

% [C,B,A] = sdir2cas(b,a)

%  C = gain coefficient

%  B = K by 3 matrix of real coefficients containing bk's

%  A = K by 3 matrix of real coefficients containing ak's

%  b = numerator polynomial coefficients of DIRECT form

%  a = denominator polynomial coefficients of DIRECT form

%

Na = length(a)-1; Nb = length(b)-1;

% compute gain coefficient C

b0 = b(1); b = b/b0;

a0 = a(1); a = a/a0;

C = b0/a0;

%

% Denominator second-order sections:

p= cplxpair(roots(a)); K = floor(Na/2);

if K*2 == Na     % Computation when Na is even

A = zeros(K,3);

for n=1:2:Na

Arow = p(n:1:n+1,:);

Arow = poly(Arow);

A(fix((n+1)/2),:) = real(Arow);

end

elseif Na == 1   % Computation when Na = 1

A = [0 real(poly(p))];

else             % Computation when Na is odd and > 1

A = zeros(K+1,3);

for n=1:2:2*K

Arow = p(n:1:n+1,:);

Arow = poly(Arow);

A(fix((n+1)/2),:) = real(Arow);

end

A(K+1,:) = [0 real(poly(p(Na)))];

end

% Numerator second-order sections:

z = cplxpair(roots(b)); K = floor(Nb/2);

if Nb == 0           % Computation when Nb = 0

B = [0 0 poly(z)];

elseif K*2 == Nb     % Computation when Nb is even

B = zeros(K,3);

for n=1:2:Nb

Brow = z(n:1:n+1,:);

Brow = poly(Brow);

B(fix((n+1)/2),:) = real(Brow);

end

elseif Nb == 1       % Computation when Nb = 1

B = [0 real(poly(z))];

else                 % Computation when Nb is odd and > 1

B = zeros(K+1,3);

for n=1:2:2*K

Brow = z(n:1:n+1,:);

Brow = poly(Brow);

B(fix((n+1)/2),:) = real(Brow);

end

B(K+1,:) = [0 real(poly(z(Nb)))];

end

function [b,a] = afd_butt(Wp,Ws,Rp,As);

% Analog Lowpass Filter Design: Butterworth

% -----------------------------------------

% [b,a] = afd_butt(Wp,Ws,Rp,As);

%  b = Numerator coefficients of Ha(s)

%  a = Denominator coefficients of Ha(s)

% Wp = Passband edge frequency in rad/sec; Wp > 0

% Ws = Stopband edge frequency in rad/sec; Ws > Wp > 0

% Rp = Passband ripple in +dB; (Rp > 0)

% As = Stopband attenuation in +dB; (As > 0)

%

if Wp <= 0

error('Passband edge must be larger than 0')

end

if Ws <= Wp

error('Stopband edge must be larger than Passband edge')

end

if (Rp <= 0) | (As < 0)

error('PB ripple and/or SB attenuation ust be larger than 0')

end

N = ceil((log10((10^(Rp/10)-1)/(10^(As/10)-1)))/(2*log10(Wp/Ws)));

fprintf('\n*** Butterworth Filter Order = %2.0f \n',N)

OmegaC = Wp/((10^(Rp/10)-1)^(1/(2*N)));

[b,a]=u_buttap(N,OmegaC);
function [b,a] = u_buttap(N,Omegac);

% Unnormalized Butterworth Analog Lowpass Filter Prototype

% --------------------------------------------------------

% [b,a] = u_buttap(N,Omegac);

%      b = numerator polynomial coefficients of Ha(s)

%      a = denominator polynomial coefficients of Ha(s)

%      N = Order of the Butterworth Filter

% Omegac = Cutoff frequency in radians/sec

%

[z,p,k] = buttap(N);

p = p*Omegac;

k = k*Omegac^N;

B = real(poly(z));

b0 = k;

b = k*B;

a = real(poly(p));


I have also attached snap of my output plot,which appears to be high pass • could you please remove all the superfluous empty lines from your code to make it sensibly readable? – Marcus Müller Jul 15 at 13:55
• Can you add the plots to your question, too, so that we don't have to run your code? – Marcus Müller Jul 15 at 13:58

You should use freqs instead of freqz.

• This Chp 8, is about IIR filter design,which are part of digital filters category, so should not we use "freqz" command because IIR filters are digital not analog – engr Jul 15 at 17:34

Your problem is here, as Yiftah also pointed out:

% Analog filter design:
[b,a] = afd_butt(Wp,Ws,Rp,As)
freqz(b,a)


The a and b are not vectors of IIR filter coefficients or z-domain polynomials, they are s-domain polynomials.

The code above uses the analog prototypes to calculate the s-domain polynomials.

The name of the section also hints at it:

8.3. Characteristics of Prototype Analog Filters

You have to wait until the next section to do the s-to-z domain transfers.

8.4. Analog-to-Digital Filter Transformations