# FIR Filter implementation vs Linear convolution implementation

I came across a C code for the FIR filter on one of the websites. It is as follows

 void fir(short * y, const short *x, const short *h, int n_out, int n_coefs)
{
int n;
for (n = 0; n < n_out; n++)
{
int k, sum = 0;
for(k = 0; k < n_coefs; k++)
{
sum += h[k] * x[n - n_coefs + 1 + k];
}
y[n] = sum;
}
}


I used the following input in my main function. Considered n_coeffs as 4 and n_out as 7 (4+4-1). And the coefficients are as follows (after padding)

x ={1,2,3,4,0,0,0}; h={1,2,3,4,0,0,0};

And then, I modified the above FIR code as follows and used it in my function

for (i = 0; i < 7; i++)
{
y[i] = 0;

for(j = 0; j < 4; j++)
{
y[i] = y[i] + h[j] * x[i - 4 + 1 + j];
}
}


And the obtained output is {4,11,20,30,20,11,4}

But when I perform convolution operation,

 for(i=0;i<7;i++)
{
y[i] = 0;

for(j=0;j<4;j++)
{
y[i] = y[i] + h[j] * x [i-j];
}
}


The obtained output is {1,4,10,20,25,24,16}.

Ideally, both convolution and FIR Filter should give the same output, right?

And one more thing I observed is the output will be {4,11,20,30,20,11,4} when the h coefficients are time-reversed before padding i.e. when h={4,3,2,1,0,0,0}.

I am confused a bit, where I am going wrong?

• In your second code snippet the index to the array x[] is i-4+1+j. Now, as an example, if i=0 and j=0 (which will happen), what will the resulting index be then? Ask yourself if this makes sense. Then ask yourself if this whole question makes any sense. – Matt L. Feb 27 at 11:37
• @MattL. All the negative indexed values are getting replaced with 0. I verified it too. It is as expected, right? – rkc Feb 27 at 11:57
• No, you can't count on that, you have to make that sure in your code. – Matt L. Feb 27 at 11:58
• @MattL. Yes. I verified by printing every value of x. All the negative indexed values of x are 0. – rkc Feb 27 at 12:00
• OK, but how does that guarantee anything? By addressing out-of-range values of an array you're just hoping to be lucky. The result can be completely arbitrary. – Matt L. Feb 27 at 12:02