Consider a discrete time LTI causal system $S: y = S(u)$, with its impulse response $h:{Z} \rightarrow R:h(n)=3^{n+1}{H(n)}$ with $H$ the Heaviside function. We know the values of input:

$$u(0) = 2$$ $$u(1) = 1$$ $$u(2) = 1$$ $$u(3) = 1$$ $$u(4) = 2$$

Also the $y(2) = 66$. I'm trying to find the value of $y(3)$.

I may say, for a LTI, causal system the output is the convolution of the input with the impulse response:

$$y(n) = \sum^\infty_{k=0}3^{k+1}u(n-k)$$


$$y(3) = 3u(3)+9u(2)+27u(1)+81u(0) = 201$$

Which is the correct answer! But I don't understand, why should I stop at $u(0)$ or why the negative values of the input $u(n), n< 0$ are zero here ?

Alternative solution:

recursion gives us this form:

$$y(n) = 3y(n-1)+3u(n)$$

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ I think that usually for such questions, the input for negative time values is defined as zero. $\endgroup$ Commented Dec 15, 2019 at 7:51

1 Answer 1


Unless explicitly stated, you shall not assume that the input is zero for $n<0$, hence the convolution sum should be

$$y(n) = \sum^\infty_{k=-\infty}3^{k+1}u(n-k)=\sum^\infty_{k=0}3^{k+1}u(n-k).$$

In this situation, without making any assumption on $u[n]$ for $n<0$ you can still compute $y[n]$ for $n \geq 0$ based on the recursive relation as you have outlined :

$$y(n) = 3y(n-1)+3u(n) \implies y[3] = 3y[2] + 3u[3] = 201$$

What can be said about $u[n]$ for $n<0$ ? Actually nothing but, given that $y[2] = 66$ we may try the folowing :

$$ \begin{align} y[2] &= \sum^2_{k=0}3^{k+1}u(2-k) + \sum^\infty_{k=3}3^{k+1}u(2-k) \\ &= 66 + \sum^\infty_{k=3}3^{k+1}u(2-k) \\ 66 &= 66 + \sum^\infty_{k=3}3^{k+1}u(2-k) \\ 0 &= \sum^\infty_{k=3}3^{k+1}u(2-k) \end{align} $$

That the sum in the parenthesis equals zero, has a trivial solution of $x[n] = 0$ for $ n <0$.

However, we may also ask whether another, nonzero, solution is also possible that the sum be zero? Consider, for example, the input $$u[n] = (-1)^{2-n} ~~3^{n-3}$$ for $n<0$ which yields for the sum

$$\sum^\infty_{k=3}3^{k+1}u(2-k) = 1-1+1-1+1-...$$

This is an alternating sequence and it does not converge. However, if it's possible to restrict the length of the input to be even for $n<0$, then the sum will be zero too...

Nevertheless, in order to uniquely specify $u[n]$ for $n<0$ a single sum is not enough. We must know values of output $y[n]$ for all $n<0$ for that. Hence you cannot conlcude that $x[n]=0$ for $n<0$ under the given situation.


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