# Audio Signal Noise Filter Problem

I'm currently working with audio signals and have a problem:

C = A*B + N, where

C = recorded signal from microphone consisting of:

A = known music file data played on speakers next to microphone

B = some convolution on the recorded A-sound due to speaker->mic roundtrip
(I mean the recorded signal won't be 100% the same as the audio data from the file before it is played to the speaker and recorded by mic. (Is this an impulse response?))

N = some additional noise sounds recorded by microphone

My goal: an approximate estimation as to whether there is a signal N and how loud it is.

I don't have a need for accurate data!

I'm working with Apple's vDSP API. I have cross correlated the signals A and C, so I have the time window in which the signals overlap.

In the overlapping window, I have both signals in the time and frequency domain.

Currently I'm helpless if, for example, a Wiener filter is the right approach and if I'm capable to apply one with my known parameters(Is a known noise required? or the impulse response of the environment?). I tried to apply a Wiener deconvolution by dividing C/A in the frequency domain with no success.

Once more: I don't need accurate data, just a rough guess how much N is there in the signal C. Actually a SNR like measure would be sufficient.

• Yes, B is an impulse response. Is it known? I assume not. Dec 9, 2012 at 16:29
• no its not. and i guess i even can't even say what is B and what N, so i have to assume the impulse response is B+N? Dec 10, 2012 at 5:20
• B is the impulse response. Dec 10, 2012 at 16:27

Create a filterbank, F, (a properly windowed FFT will work) to analyze both the known music file A and the input C. You will also need some measurement function, M. I would suggest $M(x) = | x |$, rather than $M(x) = x^2$, but both will work, and you may also want to do some smoothing over time. By comparing the results of $M(F(C))$ to $(M(F(A))$ when the noise is low, you should be able to determine the effect of B. Of course, you may not know that the noise is low, in which case, you'll have to get a bit more clever, creating some estimate based on some statistics. The goal, however, is to get to a point where you can predict the output of $(M(F(C))$ from $(M(F(A)))$, to within some bounds. The lower the bounds the better you will be at detecting the noise.
To estimate the noise, you will compare how far above those bounds the signal has actually gone. This will work well for band-limited noise, but for quieter, broadband noise, it may not work well. In that case, you may want to create an aggregate statistic based not just on how far above the bounds a signal has gone, but how many bounds have been crossed, or simply apply your measurement function directly to your unfiltered signal: $M(C)$ vs $(M(A))$.
• Thanks this was very helpful! This showed me, that it is critical to get B first to be able to analyze the systems output. So i calculated B with a sine sweep method and now im in the situation to be able to modulate A with the IR to match C pretty accurate. Im not sure which method to choose to compare the FFT data of both signals yet, but as they match so good when no noise is entering the system this should be a very good starting point. Maybe i even try something like spectral subtraction to eliminate A*B completely. Jan 17, 2013 at 6:36