How can acoustic pressure in air be measured when it is targeted very specifically, e.g. at a specific person in a room or house?
- placing a microphone as near to the acoustic source as possible.
- acoustic sources have directional radiation and placing a microphone in a place where that intensity is high
- microphones have directivity and one can configure sets of microphones to have greater directivity and one can aim the directional microphone(s) at the acoustic source.
- one can configure microphones to reject acoustic sources that are masking the source of interest.
- one can filter out sound out of the bands that the source emits.
these measures can be combined and are not mutually exclusive.
there are also physical limitations that each situation imposes on the ability to isolate a source.