# The mean value of phase noise as a stochastic process

1. What is the mean value of phase noise as a stochastic process?
2. Where can I get a theoretical analysis of this topic?

PS: PLL produces cos(2*πfct+φ(t)). The phase noise refers to φ(t). The mean value of the phase noise what I say refers to the mathematic expectation of phase noise stochastic process φ(t), namely E{ φ(t) }.

• Hi! It'd be nice if you edit your question to add what you researched so far, and be more specific. As is, your question is too broad; check the FAQ. May 17 '19 at 14:57
• I agree the question is not specific enough. But one thing to keep in mind is that phase wraps: i.e., any phase $\phi$ is indistinguishable from $\phi+k2\pi$, for any integer $k$. Thus the mean value of the unwrapped phase noise may not be meaningful. May 20 '19 at 4:53