1. What is the mean value of phase noise as a stochastic process?
  2. Where can I get a theoretical analysis of this topic?

PS: PLL produces cos(2*πfct+φ(t)). The phase noise refers to φ(t). The mean value of the phase noise what I say refers to the mathematic expectation of phase noise stochastic process φ(t), namely E{ φ(t) }.

  • $\begingroup$ Hi! It'd be nice if you edit your question to add what you researched so far, and be more specific. As is, your question is too broad; check the FAQ. $\endgroup$
    – Juancho
    May 17, 2019 at 14:57
  • $\begingroup$ Thank for your advice. $\endgroup$
    – wu yi
    May 18, 2019 at 0:42
  • $\begingroup$ I agree the question is not specific enough. But one thing to keep in mind is that phase wraps: i.e., any phase $\phi$ is indistinguishable from $\phi+k2\pi$, for any integer $k$. Thus the mean value of the unwrapped phase noise may not be meaningful. $\endgroup$ May 20, 2019 at 4:53
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you for your reply. $\endgroup$
    – wu yi
    May 20, 2019 at 13:46


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