I'm having some confusion learning about the LMS Adaptive Filter. I understand that the whole model of adaptive filters relies on the fact that we give it a reference signal to which it keeps comparing the input * filter with and the filter coefficients keep changing until the error between input and reference is zero.
Let's say I have a telephone conversation with a time-varying sinusoid added on top that changes frequencies every so often. How exactly do I give it a reference signal? I mean, if I had a reference signal of what I wanted the input to become, I would have just used it? And similarily if I had a reference signal for my unwanted sinusoid, I could have just subtracted it from my original sound.
What am I missing here?