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To calculate images similarity based on Mutual Information (MI), histogram and join histogram is required. In the literature, there are 2 contradict opinions about MI operation. 1. MI does not utilize image spatial information to calculate the similarity. 2. MI is embedded spatial information indirectly by joint histogram. I thought that may I misunderstand the MI methodology.

First opinion

... mutual information (MI) considers only statistical information, while spatial information is completely neglected. (Abdel-Basset et al. 2017)

Second opinion:

Several works (Gao et al., ..) have adopted the joint histogram of the image pair to embed spatial information into an intensity distribution. (Xu et al. 2016)

I believe the second opinion is the right one. But I find many papers agree with the first one. Which of the two groups do you believe in? why is another group wrong?

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