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I have a signal sampled at 256 Hz, which I want to filter with a 50 taps long FIR filter in real time. Would it be a problem, if my data block size is only 32 samples? And should I then concatenate 3 blocks, convolve them with the filter and output only the middle part (to avoid discontinuities)?

And more general questions: were can I read more about all real-time aspects of time-series filtering? In particular about block processing?

Many thanks for help.

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Your data block can be as short as 1 sample (although longer is usually more efficient), as long as you save each full convolution response vector to overlap-add/sum into all the following output blocks. Look up overlap-add/save fast convolution see how this can be done using an FFT/IFFT plus some add/save buffering.

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