I understand that the meaning of the phase response of a system is simply how much the system delays a frequency component. However, I do not find an intuitive explanation for the phase of a signal. The representation the Fourier transform of a signal by polar coordinates, produces two components; the magnitude and the phase. The magnitude response is simply how much each frequency component is contributing to this signal. However, what is the meaning of the phase here? Can I know if a frequency component is "exist" in the signal by just looking into the phase of a signal?
I found an explanation here:
determines how the sinusoids line up relative to one another to form a signal
But the did not help me.