The highest voted answer to this question suggests that to denoise a signal while preserving sharp transitions one should
minimize the objective function:
$$ |x-y|^2 + b|f(y)| $$
where $x$ is the noisy signal, $y$ is the denoised signal, $b$ is the regularziation parameter, and $|f(y)|$ is some L1 norm penalty. Denoising is accomplished by finding the solution $y$ to this optimization problem, and $b$ depends on the noise level.
However, there is no indication of how one might accomplish that in practice as that is a problem in a very high dimensional space, especially if the signal is e.g. 10 million samples long. In practice how is this sort of problem solved computationally for large signals?