# How to identify causality, stability and ROC from the pole-zero plot?

To preface, this is not a homework related question but purely for self-study purposes.

If I am given the following Pole-Zero Plot: (Source: Berkeley Exam1)

• How would I go about trying to determine whether the system is causal or stable?
• Similarly, why should the region of convergence be $0.5 < |z| < 2$ for stability?

I know that for stability, the ROC must include the unit circle. And for causality, $h[n]=0$ for $n<0$. Other than that, I am having trouble applying those rules to a pole-zero plot. For systems with more than one pole (with different radii), there are $3$ types of ROCs:
3. in a ring defined by the radii $r_1$ and $r_2$ of any two poles with $r_1<r_2$, with no other pole at a radius in the interval $(r_1,r_2)$; the corresponding time-domain sequence is two-sided
In your example you have case $3$ above, because that's the only ROC that includes the unit circle, and, consequently, corresponds to a stable system. Both other possible ROCs (inside the circle with radius $0.5$ and outside the circle with radius $2$) do not include the unit circle, and, consequently, do not correspond to impulse responses of stable systems. Since a ROC equal to a ring between two poles corresponds to a two-sided sequence, the system can't be causal. A causal system has a ROC outside a circle (case $2$ in the list above).