Consider Multidirectional Scratch Detection and Restoration in Digitized Old Images Research Paper.

In section 4.1 (Preprocessing), they gave us a formula of the kernel,

$$ H(u, v) = \frac{1}{1+0.414 \times \left(\sqrt{\frac{u^*}{D_h}+\frac{v^*}{D_v}}\right)^{2n}} $$

Where, \begin{split} t_x & = \mathrm{center} \times \cos(\theta) \\ t_y & = \mathrm{center} \times \sin(\theta) \\ u^* & = \cos(\theta) \times (u+t_x) + \sin(\theta)\times(u+t_y)\\ v^* & = -\sin(\theta) \times (u+t_x) + \cos(\theta)\times(u+t_y)\\ \end{split}

The formula doesn’t look correct to me.

  1. Why would someone apply $\mathrm{sqrt}()$ and subsequently apply a power of $2n$ as it makes the $\mathrm{sqrt}()$ operation redundant?
  2. $H(u,v)$ transfer function looks like a high-pass filter rather than a band-pass filter.
  3. Shouldn’t $\mathrm{center}$ be $\mathrm{center}_x$, and $\mathrm{center}_y?$
  4. Shouldn’t $(u+t_y)$ be $(v+t_y)$?
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Without doing any checking, I'd guess that both $u^*$ and $v^*$ equations are missing a $v$ term. $\endgroup$
    – Peter K.
    Commented Jul 17, 2016 at 13:28
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Yes it is "wrong". The 1/(1+(a fraction)^2*n) is very much reminiscent of the Butterworth response and the $cos,sin$ business is just a rotation. So, that should be $u$ to the $cos$ term and $v$ to the $sin$ term. $\endgroup$
    – A_A
    Commented Jul 18, 2016 at 9:58
  • $\begingroup$ @A_A, tx = centerX * cos; ty = centerY * sin; u* = cos . (u + tx) + sin . (v + ty); v* = -sin . (u + tx) + cos . (v + ty); ... ... ... ... ... Is this the correct one? $\endgroup$
    – user18425
    Commented Jul 19, 2016 at 5:31
  • $\begingroup$ the question needs some help with $\LaTeX$. $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 21, 2017 at 5:59
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Reference 15 in that paper is this paper. I think they're trying to say that the equation you quote is the same as equation (1) in that paper... which I very much doubt: $F(r,\theta) = [e^{r^2\sigma_1^2} - e^{r^2\sigma_2^2}] 2 \pi i r \cos(\theta)$. $\endgroup$
    – Peter K.
    Commented Jul 21, 2017 at 15:19

1 Answer 1


I agree with Peter K. It looks like the authors of the Multidirectional Scratch Detection and Restoration in Digitized Old Images (E. Ardizzone, H. Dindo, and G. Mazzola, EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing, 2010) paper tried to reformulate the equation (shown by Peter K.) from the Analyzing Oriented Patterns paper by Kass and Witkin (1987; Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, Vol. 37. No 3, pages 362 to 385).

Comparing the equations posted by the OP with the equations of a Gabor Filter, it feels like the author's are trying to make a novel contribution with their paper by reformulating the work of Kass and Witkin. Although neither paper includes references to Gabor filters directly, Ardizzone et al. justify the use of their reformulated "steerable" filter by stating,

The filter order n can control the slope of the subband, so that we chose n=4 to concentrate the filtering in a precise zone of the spectrum. This explains the use of this bandpass filter instead of a Gabor one.

My experience with image filters is limited, but I believe a Gabor filter can realize the same apparent functionality as the equation given by the OP including bandwidth selection (see this entry, for example).

I think "subband" refers to one of the directionally dependent filters and the "center" is the origin of the Gabor kernel relative to the image on which the kernel is being applied.

I hope this helps.


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