According to this paper:
$y(t)$ is stationary if all of the roots (of characteristic equation) lie outside the unit circle
Here, $y(t)$ is causal.
To me it seems the case is exactly the opposite, the roots should be inside the unit circle for causal process to be stable.
Example, consider the difference equation:
The characteristic equation is then: $$r^2-5r+6=0$$
Solution for characteristic roots: $$r=2, r=3$$
Solution for the difference equation (assuming 1 as initial conditions): $$y(t)=2^t+3^t$$
Clearly the roots are outside the unit circle (as 1<2,3), and the process unstationary (as it grows with t). To me it seems that the 3rd equation in the paper should have negative exponent for zs (in which case the solution would be the same as mine, even if arrived through the z transform).
Yet, the claim appears in many places so it can't be wrong (I doubt the paper is wrong either). However, for LTI system to be stable the poles must be inside the circle, a other claim that is repeated everywhere. Is the statement just plain wrong or are these things somehow not equivalent?