# camera calibration change orientation of axis

I want to solve for the extrinsics by using direct linear transformation on corresponding 3D LIDAR points and 2D camera points. I already have the intrinsics.

Problem is, points behind the camera gets re-projected as well (see picture below).

So I constrain to only points "in front of the camera", i.e z > 0. The problem is, on different trials where different sets of points are used, the produced extrinsic matrix produces differing axes. Sometimes, constraining z > 0 gives the right results (centre part of image), whereas other times I need z < 0. So the question is, how do I constrain the Z axes of the camera to be sticking out of the camera?

def with_intrinsic(points2d, points3d, intrinsic):
cam1_K_inverse = np.linalg.inv(intrinsic)

#direct linear transformation calibration, assumes no intrinsic matrix
assert points2d.shape >= 3
assert points3d.shape == points2d.shape

A = []

points2d_homo = []
for u,v in points2d:
points2d_homo.append([u, v, 1])

points2d_homo = np.array(points2d_homo).T #columns to be data points

points2d_inv = np.dot(cam1_K_inverse, points2d_homo).T
assert points2d_inv.shape == (points2d.shape, 3)
assert points2d_inv[0, 2] == 1

for idx in range(points2d.shape):
x3d, y3d, z3d = points3d[idx]
u, v, _ = points2d_inv[idx]

A.append([x3d, y3d, z3d, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, -u * x3d, -u * y3d, -u * z3d, -u])
A.append([0, 0, 0, 0, x3d, y3d, z3d, 1, -v * x3d, -v * y3d, -v * z3d, -v])

A = np.array(A)

U, D, VT = np.linalg.svd(A)
M = VT.T[:, -1].reshape((3, 4))

error = get_reprojection_error(points2d, points3d, intrinsic, M)
logging.debug("error with_intrinsic: %s", error)

return M

• It's a polar transformation. So, why don't you constrain the angle, $\theta$? You have only 180 degrees of rotation as far as I understand. Mar 15 '16 at 17:45