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I am stuck in the part where I need to apply the MLSE Equalizer with Viterbi code. The equalizer is an optimal. I am using the Communication Toolbox http://www.mathworks.com/help/comm/ref/comm.mlseequalizer-class.html#properties

and cannot understand pretty much if the simulation is working properly or not. Basically, the equalizer is an FIR model and the channel is a multipath (not Rayleigh). Following the example in the documentation, I cannot understand

(1) What this statement does? Why is it calling the ML Equalizer here?

  modSignal = step(hMod, data);

(2) In the example code, there is no statement for additive Additive White Gaussian noise. The example given in the documentation does not clearly mention if the additive white Gaussian noise has been incorporated into the transmitted signal. It only says Introduce channel distortion . What kind of distortion is unclear.

(3) Is the example properly functioning because the simulation BER = 0 for all SNR levels. I am sceptical if I am doing it properly.

I shall be really obliged if some help is provided in how I should properly use the MLSE equalizer. Thank you.

UPDATE : The code throws error :

Error using comm.MLSEEqualizer/step
Complexity mismatch with input 1; expected complex, got real.

Error in MLSEEqualization_test (line 47)
      eqSignal = step(hMLSEE,chanOutput);

I wanted to see if I can apply MLSE for real signal also such as BPSK and to minimize the use of built-in functions for data generation, modulation and demodulation. This would help me to understand how the theoretical concepts can be put together in the code. That is why I am not using the communication toolbox for data generation and other steps; I am using only the MLSE EQualizer module provided in the toolbox. How can I go about this error message? The channel coefficients are real, noise is real and the data is also real. Thank you.

N = 10^3 % number of bits or symbols
rand('state',100); % initializing the rand() function
randn('state',200); % initializing the randn() function


n = 1/sqrt(2)*[randn(1,N) + j*randn(1,N)]; % white gaussian noise, 0dB variance 
Eb_N0_dB = [0:10]; % multiple Eb/N0 values
h=[1 0.6 0.3]';

L = length(h);
for aa = 1:length(Eb_N0_dB)

    % Transmitter
ip = rand(1,N)>0.0; % generating 0,1 with equal probability
data = 2*ip-1; % BPSK modulation 0 -> -1; 1 -> 1 

   chanOutput = filter(h,1,data');



    %% ----- ADDED
    EbN0 = Eb_N0_dB(aa);
    SNR_linear  = 10^(EbN0/10)*log2(M);
    SigPWR      = 1; %unit circle symbols
    NoisePWR    = SigPWR/SNR_linear;
    NoiseFactor = sqrt(NoisePWR/2); %half power complex half imaginary

    hMod = comm.QPSKModulator(0,'SymbolMapping','Binary');
  %  hDemod = comm.QPSKDemodulator(0,'SymbolMapping','Binary');
    const = step(hMod,(0:M-1)'); % BPSK constellation

            %% ----- ADD NOISE !!      
  %    noiseVec   = NoiseFactor*randn(N,1)+1j*NoiseFactor*randn(N,1);
   noiseVec   = NoiseFactor*randn(N,1);
      chanOutput = chanOutput+noiseVec;

    hMLSEE = comm.MLSEEqualizer('TracebackDepth',10,...
                      'Channel',h, 'Constellation',const);

    hError = comm.ErrorRate;

 % Equalize the channel output and demodulate
      eqSignal = step(hMLSEE,chanOutput);
      demodData = real(eqSignal) > 0;
   %   demodData = step(hDemod,eqSignal);
 % Compute BER
      errorStats = step(hError, data, demodData);

    fprintf('Error rate = %f\nNumber of errors = %d\n', ...
      errorStats(1), errorStats(2))

    %assume 1 symbol error = 1 bit error (needs Gray coding in real system for this to be true)
    BER(aa) = errorStats(1); % SER ~= BER with undelrying Gray coding
end

%% changed, this is already divided by N*N2
simBer = BER; % simulated ber


theoryBer = 0.5*erfc(sqrt(10.^(Eb_N0_dB/10))); % theoretical ber
close all
figure
semilogy(Eb_N0_dB,theoryBer,'b.-');
hold on
semilogy(Eb_N0_dB,simBer,'mx-');
axis([0 10 10^-5 0.5])
grid on
legend('theory', 'simulation');
xlabel('Eb/No, dB');
ylabel('Bit Error Rate');
title('Bit error probability curve for BPSK modulation');
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  • $\begingroup$ 1.how to calculate the bit error rate of transmit grid data and receive grid data in LTE downlink? 2.which command can be used to calculate directly the number of error bits and ber value? $\endgroup$ – Satheesh Monikandan B Nov 13 '17 at 12:11
  • $\begingroup$ @SatheeshMonikandanB : Please DO NOT post questions as answers. This is NOT a discussion forum. Stack Exchange sites are for finding good answers to tough questions. If you have a question, please ask it AS A QUESTION by using the Ask Question button at the top right of the screen. $\endgroup$ – Peter K. Nov 13 '17 at 13:31
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I had a look at your code, and I know why you get 0 BER.

The thing is that you do not add any noise, you should use Eb/N0 to calculate the noise variance, and add a complex noise on your channel output.

The distortion added by "chanOutput = filter(chCoeffs,1,modSignal);" merely adds linear ISI, by convolving the channel impulse response with the input signal. This linear distortion is exactly known to the equalizer since you pass it the exact channel coefficients. This is never the case in real applications.

Even assuming you do know the channel coefficients, you still need to add noise immediately after the channel distortion and before the equalizer, to get a meaningful result of BER over Eb/N0.

Noise can be generated with randn having unit variance, then you need to multiply this noise by a constant.

I did not spend too much time understanding what you want to verify, but i did correct the script to include noise.

clear
N = 10^4; % number of symbols
N2= 10;   %repeat with same Eb/N0

% Eb_N0_dB = [0:25]; % multiple Eb/N0 values
Eb_N0_dB = (0:10); % multiple Eb/N0 values
nTx = 1;  %SISO 
nRx = 1;

M = 4; %QPSK

for ii = 1:length(Eb_N0_dB)

    %% ----- ADDED
    EbN0 = Eb_N0_dB(ii);
    SNR_linear  = 10^(EbN0/10)*log2(M);
    SigPWR      = 1; %unit circle symbols
    NoisePWR    = SigPWR/SNR_linear;
    NoiseFactor = sqrt(NoisePWR/2); %half power complex half imaginary

    hMod = comm.QPSKModulator(0,'SymbolMapping','Binary');
    hDemod = comm.QPSKDemodulator(0,'SymbolMapping','Binary');
 % Channel coefficients
    chCoeffs = [.986; .845; .237; .12345+.31i]; 
    hMLSEE = comm.MLSEEqualizer('TracebackDepth',10,...
                      'Channel',chCoeffs, 'Constellation',[1 1i -1 -1i]);
 % Create an error rate calculator
    hError = comm.ErrorRate;
    for n = 1:N2
      data= randi([0 3],N,1);
      modSignal = step(hMod, data);

 % Introduce channel distortion.
      chanOutput = filter(chCoeffs,1,modSignal); 

      %% ----- ADD NOISE !!      
      noiseVec   = NoiseFactor*randn(N,1)+1j*NoiseFactor*randn(N,1);
      chanOutput = chanOutput+noiseVec;


 % Equalize the channel output and demodulate
      eqSignal = step(hMLSEE,chanOutput);
      demodData = step(hDemod,eqSignal);
 % Compute BER
      errorStats = step(hError, data, demodData);
%       nErr=errorStats(1) ;
    end
    fprintf('Error rate = %f\nNumber of errors = %d\n', ...
      errorStats(1), errorStats(2))

    %assume 1 symbol error = 1 bit error (needs Gray coding in real system for this to be true)
    SER(ii) = errorStats(1); % SER ~= BER with undelrying Gray coding
end

%% changed, this is already divided by N*N2
simBer = SER; % simulated ber


EbN0Lin = 10.^(Eb_N0_dB/10);
theoryBer_nRx1 = 0.5.*(1-1*(1+1./EbN0Lin).^(-0.5)); 
p = 1/2 - 1/2*(1+1./EbN0Lin).^(-1/2);
theoryBerMRC_nRx2 = p.^2.*(1+2*(1-p)); 

close all
figure
semilogy(Eb_N0_dB,theoryBer_nRx1,'bp-','LineWidth',2);
hold on
semilogy(Eb_N0_dB,theoryBerMRC_nRx2,'kd-','LineWidth',2);
semilogy(Eb_N0_dB,simBer,'mo-','LineWidth',2);
axis([0 25 10^-5 0.5])
grid on
legend('theory (nTx=1,nRx=1)', 'theory (nTx=1,nRx=2, MRC)', 'sim (nTx=2, nRx=2, ML)');
xlabel('Average Eb/No,dB');
ylabel('Bit Error Rate');
title('BER for BPSK modulation with ML equalizer');
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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you for your reply. I have added the noise and then was testing the MLSE Algorithm, It appears that the module for MLSE works only for complex data. BUt, in the case of BPSK, we do not necessarily need complex. Can you please suggest what I should do so that the algorithm works for real and complex? I have posted the new code from your answer in the Question along with the Error message. $\endgroup$ – Ria George Oct 26 '15 at 0:15
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    $\begingroup$ I think for BPSK you need to specify the constellation to be [-1,1] instead of 'Constellation',[1 1i -1 -1i]. No need to go to Real since constellations are customary drawn in the IQ plane (complex) even for real constellations, such as PAM; that way when one modulates the signal the phase relation with the carrier is unambiguous. $\endgroup$ – Massimo Oct 26 '15 at 11:27
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    $\begingroup$ To be more pragmatic, unfortunately i never use the comm toolbox, so i am not sure. Only thing i can think of is that if the constellation is real the noise should be scaled correctly and be real too. $\endgroup$ – Massimo Oct 26 '15 at 11:37

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