I am simulating a QPSK modulation in GNU radio. Here is the flowgraph:
The source is a binary stream coming from the Random Source block. There are 4 PSK Mod blocks configured identically (4 constellation points - a QPSK modulation, Grey coding and Differential encoding turned on, excess bandwidth set to 0,35). The modulators differ in the parameter samples/symbol (sps), which is set to 2, 4, 8, and 16. The constellation sinks are configured identically. What is expected to be shown on the constellation diagram is a plot with 4 constellation points that could be the tips of a square or 4 clusters of points that are concentrated around those 4 points as a certain amount of noise or imperfection of the system is added. Instead, we have the following:
Constellation diagram when sps is set to 16:
Constellation diagrams for sps 2, 4 and 8 look the same but with less points on the sides of the rhombus and less points around tips of the rhombus that look like the extensions of the rhombus sides.
The question is why constellation diagrams look like this - why additional points are added and there are more and more of them as we increase the samples per symbol parameter so the diagram with sps 16 looks more like a rhombus than a 4 clusters of points? Why significant number of points appear around 4 tips of the rhombus looking like extensions of rhombus sides?