A symbol with coordinates $(x,y)$ has energy $x^2+y^2$. In 16-QAM, minimum distance $2A$ implies that the values of $x$ and $y$ are restricted to the set $\lbrace\pm A,\pm3A\rbrace$, and in consequence the possible symbol energies are $2A^2$, $10A^2$ and $18A^2$.
Furthermore, there are 4 symbols with energy $2A^2$, 8 symbols with energy $10A^2$, and 4 symbols with energy $18A^2$. Calculating the averagey symbol energy, we conclude that $E_s=160A^2/16=10A^2$.
Note that a similar procedure can be used to calculate the average symbol energy of any quadrature modulation, even if they're not square (or even rectangular).