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I have to connect nearby contours in an image based on the distance between them which specifies if the contours are to be connected.

Now there's a question already on the same problem here https://stackoverflow.com/questions/8973017/opencv-c-obj-c-connect-nearby-contours but here he merges all contours into a single one. This I don't want. I don't think that there is some function in opencv for this but you can suggest an algorithm for that. My application goes like this:

I'm detecting hands, so I used a skin detection algorithm to determine them but since my skin ain't white and maybe because of lightening conditions sometime the contour breaks of at elbow. So i want the nearby contours to be connected but not all of them (because both both my hands will be there in contours.) (By hands I mean from shoulder to palm.)

Moreover I think that by using some edge detection I will get my hands boundaries and detect if some of this patch inside this boundary is detected as skin then whole region within this boundary will be detected as skin but i'm not sure how to do this part.

Any Help will be appreciated. Thanks in advance

Sample image:

enter image description here

In this Image I wanna connect points (8 connectivity) which are less than say 40 pixels of distance so that I'll get my left hand as a single contour

My aim is to only get hand's contour (I don't care about any other region)

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  • $\begingroup$ by hands you actually mean arms. could you not just adjust the hue you use to detect skin to match your skin color? $\endgroup$ – waspinator Jun 7 '12 at 19:52
  • $\begingroup$ I have done that and it gives fine output (When my skin is illuminated). So during evening it comes as shown. Anyways I thought that there might be some method to connect nearby blobs. $\endgroup$ – Roney Island Jun 8 '12 at 1:43
  • $\begingroup$ Related to dsp.stackexchange.com/q/2588/590 $\endgroup$ – Chris Jun 8 '12 at 7:44
  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to stack exchange. SE is not a forum! This is not an answer to the question. If you have a question about the question - put this as a comment. $\endgroup$ – Dipan Mehta Jun 11 '12 at 11:31
  • $\begingroup$ how do you detect the skin? $\endgroup$ – nkint Jan 7 '13 at 11:10
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If you are not worried about the speed or exact contour of hand, below is a simple solution.

The method is like this : You take each contour and find distance to other contours. If distance is less than 50, they are nearby and you put them together. If not, they are put as different.

So checking distance to each contour is a time consuming process. Takes a few seconds. So no way you can do it real time.

Also, to join contours, I put them in a single set and drew a convex hull for that set. So the result you are getting is actually a convex hull of hand, not real hand.

Below is my piece of code in OpenCV-Python. I haven't gone for any optimization, just wanted it to work, that's all. If it solves your problem, go for optimization.

import cv2
import numpy as np

def find_if_close(cnt1,cnt2):
    row1,row2 = cnt1.shape[0],cnt2.shape[0]
    for i in xrange(row1):
        for j in xrange(row2):
            dist = np.linalg.norm(cnt1[i]-cnt2[j])
            if abs(dist) < 50 :
                return True
            elif i==row1-1 and j==row2-1:
                return False

img = cv2.imread('dspcnt.jpg')
gray = cv2.cvtColor(img,cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
ret,thresh = cv2.threshold(gray,127,255,0)
contours,hier = cv2.findContours(thresh,cv2.RETR_EXTERNAL,2)

LENGTH = len(contours)
status = np.zeros((LENGTH,1))

for i,cnt1 in enumerate(contours):
    x = i    
    if i != LENGTH-1:
        for j,cnt2 in enumerate(contours[i+1:]):
            x = x+1
            dist = find_if_close(cnt1,cnt2)
            if dist == True:
                val = min(status[i],status[x])
                status[x] = status[i] = val
            else:
                if status[x]==status[i]:
                    status[x] = i+1

unified = []
maximum = int(status.max())+1
for i in xrange(maximum):
    pos = np.where(status==i)[0]
    if pos.size != 0:
        cont = np.vstack(contours[i] for i in pos)
        hull = cv2.convexHull(cont)
        unified.append(hull)

cv2.drawContours(img,unified,-1,(0,255,0),2)
cv2.drawContours(thresh,unified,-1,255,-1)

Below are the results i got :

enter image description here

enter image description here

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  • $\begingroup$ How can this be done in c++? I have up to the findContour part but after that I can't seem to get the contours to wrap in a polygon as shown above (as opposed to a bounding rectangle). $\endgroup$ – Elionardo Feliciano Dec 10 '13 at 5:30
  • $\begingroup$ I appreciate your approach and tried to apply to my case but unfortunately it's extremely slow on Python (although my laptop has Core i7QM and 8GB RAM). I use MSER to detect regions and now need to determine which pair of regions are "adjacent", I tried your algorithm with threshold 10... It takes years to return the adjacent regions. $\endgroup$ – Jim Raynor Apr 25 '14 at 0:12
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To fix the connectivity issue, you can try a close operation:

cv::Mat structuringElement = cv::getStructuringElement(cv::MORPH_ELLIPSE, cv::Size(40, 40));
cv::morphologyEx( inputImage, outputImage, cv::MORPH_CLOSE, structuringElement );

I doubt that this will produce the results that you want, but you can give it a try.

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It looks like you're "oversegmenting" your image. Morphological operations, as bjnoernz has suggested, would help. In particular, a watershedding approach should get closer to what you want than just checking distance (as in python example above). See http://cmm.ensmp.fr/~beucher/wtshed.html.

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