The Fourier Transform is just one of so many different transforms that alter the representation of (usually) a time-series from the time domain, to another domain (usually a frequency domain but other representations exist for other transforms such as time / frequency, time / scale and others).
You can find much more information about transforms in general from this Wikipedia list of articles that lists some popular and often used transforms. (You might want to focus on the Discrete and Integral Transforms at first)
Alternatively, you can check out this recent discussion on how the Wavelet transform, achieves a decomposition similar to that of the Fourier transform.
Finally, when you have the luxury to have acquired simultaneously many different time series from the same phenomenon you can even employ techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) which go to the point of transforming a signal to a sum of elementary waveforms that are actually extracted from the signal itself (rather than being pre-set as it is done in the Fourier (and related transforms) or Wavelets).