I have a question concerning the deformation of objects in photos. Which deformations can an object depicted on a photo undergo through viewpoint and condition changes?

Some deformations I have in mind are:

  • rotation
  • scale
  • shearing
  • translation
  • illumination
  • occlusion

Which deformations did I forget?


  • $\begingroup$ It there something like a paper discussing that? $\endgroup$ Apr 12, 2012 at 17:29
  • $\begingroup$ Is shearing even possible in normal images of solid objects? $\endgroup$ Apr 12, 2012 at 19:59
  • $\begingroup$ If you're panning a camera and it scans lines sequentially it could shear? $\endgroup$
    – endolith
    Apr 12, 2012 at 20:32
  • $\begingroup$ Ok but that's no usual scenario for taking pictures i guess $\endgroup$ Apr 13, 2012 at 8:46

2 Answers 2


Since you have listed "illumination", I am assuming that "condition changes" include changes in lighting. So I would add cast shadows, which will change if you move the light source.

Also, all the geometric transformations you have listed are affine. But if you move the camera perspective changes as well. So you may want to consider the projective transformation.

  • $\begingroup$ yep forgot that one ;-) $\endgroup$ Apr 12, 2012 at 19:46
  1. Noise, Filtering or any processing?

  2. Cropping

  3. Color conversions and brightness & contrast changes (inline with illumination but these are linear transformation).

  4. smearing.

  5. Flip or mirroring (not sure if this is possible)

  6. Gamma corrections, if related to devices?

Any thing you can do with GIMP or Photoshop?!


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