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I wonder if there is a method works as follows: 1) The algorithm is trained with some images of a particular object (I train my Image with 1000 banana images) 2) I use the training data to segment a test image (semantic segmentation)

The critical point here is, the training images DO NOT contain labeling information (foreground - background). I expect the algorithm to learn the shape of the object with some common edge orientations or features etc.

I study over Graphical Models for Segmentation and the most similar method is "OBJCUT" proposed by the following paper:

http://eprints.pascal-network.org/archive/00006963/01/kumar10.pdf

But, they train the system with shape exemplars (ground truth images contain segmentations done by humans).

My objects to segment are non-articulated objects.

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This is not a complete answer (I would comment directly your question but not allowed to due to rep), but you could look at "Learning and detecting shape models v1.3 (September 2009)" (http://groups.inf.ed.ac.uk/calvin/software.html). The paper's name is: "From images to shape models for object detection" by Ferrari, Jurie & Schmid

The idea is to learn a contour based model of object which is then possible to deform. Actually, you have to segment a little bit by providing simply bounding boxes (x-y coordinates of the top-left and bottom-right corner) of the object in the training images. You may also use training images that are already cropped around the object which you want to learn the model.

I tried their Matlab implementation and creating the bounding boxes for my training images was about as fast as manually cropping them in Gimp or else...

EDIT: BTW, if you wonder how to create groundtruth files with this program, I used a text editor such as "Notepad++" to create a text file. In the file, I wrote, separated by spaces, the coordinates of the bounding box, e.g.:" 10 33 572 458 " (no quote) then saved the file with an appropriate name (check how they do for their sample files) with the dummy extension ".groundtruth", their Matlab implementation will recognize the files.

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