# Bandpass butterworth filter frequencies in scipy

I'm designing a bandpass filter in scipy following the cookbook. However, if I decrecrease the filtering frequencies too much I end up with garbage at high order filters. What am I doing wrong?

from scipy.signal import butter, lfilter

def butter_bandpass(lowcut, highcut, fs, order=5):
nyq = 0.5 * fs
low = lowcut / nyq
high = highcut / nyq
b, a = butter(order, [low, high], btype='band')
return b, a

if __name__ == "__main__":
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from scipy.signal import freqz
# Sample rate and desired cutoff frequencies (in Hz).
fs = 25
# Plot the frequency response for a few different orders.
plt.figure(1)
plt.clf()
for order in [1, 3, 5, 6, 9]:
b, a = butter_bandpass(0.5, 4, fs, order=order)
w, h = freqz(b, a, worN=2000)#np.logspace(-4, 3, 2000))
plt.semilogx((fs * 0.5 / np.pi) * w, abs(h), label="order = %d" % order)
plt.xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')
plt.ylabel('Gain')
plt.grid(True)
plt.legend(loc='best')

plt.figure(2)
plt.clf()
for order in [1, 3, 5, 6, 9]:
b, a = butter_bandpass(0.05, 0.4, fs, order=order)
w, h = freqz(b, a, worN=2000)#np.logspace(-4, 3, 2000))
plt.semilogx((fs * 0.5 / np.pi) * w, abs(h), label="order = %d" % order)
plt.xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')
plt.ylabel('Gain')
plt.grid(True)
plt.legend(loc='best')

plt.show()  You're probably running into numerical precision issues on the higher-order filters with sharp cutoffs. It could be a limitation of the butter function in SciPy, or it could be due to the filter structure that it's using when evaluating the frequency response. A better way of implementing high-order IIR filters is using a second-order sections (SOS) structure.