I have just a quick question about how to calculate Deltas from MFCC. I have found the formula for calculating deltas here:


Another source states it is a regression equation. From what I can see, it takes coefficient from a previous and next frame. For any $N$ e.g. $N=2$, $t-n$ in $c_{t-n}$ can refer to the past where there are no frames. Which values should I substitute in this case? Should it be simply 0?

Similarly, when $t+n$ in $c_{t+n}$ refers to a frame in future that not exists, should it also be 0?



1 Answer 1


It's better to copy first frame and last frame values to extend vector sequence beyond boundaries than to assign 0. This could be implemented just by adjusting indexes:

if (index1 < 0)
    index1 = 0
if (index2 > N - 1)
   index2 = N - 1

delta = v[index1] - v[index2]
  • $\begingroup$ Yes. 0 are not typical values for MFCC, so using 0 for the first/last frames would give spurious values of the delta value. $\endgroup$ Jan 24, 2014 at 13:57

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