# How to design an all pass type filter with inverted phase response?

I want to model a "negative dispersion" in waveguides.

Is it possible to design an all pass filter with inverted phase response? (e.g. -pi at 0 and pi at Nyquist)?

I feel :) this could be possible in complex domain (but don't know how). I could use a Hilbert transformer to complexity real signal at first.

• This is used in "phase correction" to convert a minimum-phase filter into a linear-phase filter, right? Nov 14, 2013 at 15:04
• Just out of curiosity: what is the application? If the purpose is a model of a waveguide why does it have to real-time? And are we talking of optical or RF waveguides (though it's theoretically the same)?
– Deve
Nov 15, 2013 at 9:25

Sort of. The inverse of an allpass filter is also an allpass filter and can simply be calculated by time flipping the impulse response. However that makes the filter non-causal. So you need to add bulk delay to make it causal again. As long as you don't need to do real time processing, that's typically not a problem.

EDIT: add a specific example. The key is to do the filtering in the time domain. You need to truncate the IIR response to an FIR response using "enough" samples.

% create an arbitrary allpass filter
b = [-.5 1]; a = [1 -.5];

% calculate the impulse response
n = 128; d0 = zeros(n,1); d0(1)= 1;
h1 = filter(b,a,d0);

% time flip and shift by 1 to keep the first sample in the same spot
h2 = circshift(flipud(h1),1);

% plot frequency responses
fh1 = fft(h1);
fh2 = fft(h2);
phases = unwrap([angle(fh1(1:n/2+1,:)) angle(fh2(1:n/2+1,:))]);
plot(phases);

• Can you give a more detailed example? Flipping the transfer function/impulse response is equivalent to swapping poles and zeros? But then poles are outside the unit circle. Delay can be thought of as an FIR filter with transfer function H(z) = z^(-N) (multiple zeros at the origin)? And you cascade these together and that makes it ok that the poles are outside the unit circle? Nov 14, 2013 at 15:15
• FIR is always stable. Thanks! Although I hope there is a solution suitable for real-time processing. How about truncated IIR? Nov 14, 2013 at 19:51

Assuming by "negative dispersion" you mean that lower frequencies travel faster, don't try to invert the phase, this will be like trying to have a time-traveling dispersion filter. Rather, design an allpass filter with phase delay that increases (rather than decreases) with frequency.

If you're doing a 1st-order allpass, for example,

D1(z) = (-0.9 + z^-1)/(1 - 0.9z^-1)


will have a phase delay that decreaes with frequency. And

D2(z) = (0.9 + z^-1)/(1 + 0.9z^-1)


will have a phase delay that increases with frequency.

The only real drawback is you can't as cheaply or easily get comparatively large phase delays at higher frequencies.

• Doesn't negative D make the filter unstable? If it works I can always cascade several of them. Nov 16, 2013 at 7:58
• The examples I've given have positive (phase) delay. And yes, you can cascade. Nov 16, 2013 at 8:24