In signal processing, a window function is a mathematical function that is zero-valued outside of some chosen interval.

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Relation between Gaussian and Savitsky-Golay kernels

I would like to make a mathematical comparison between two methods in my field. One smooths with a Gaussian filter, and one smooths using a second-order Savitsky-Golay filter. Let's say the window ...
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1answer
26 views

Window function for signal with 3-5 sine waves inside

Should I apply some window before FFT if i want to find 5 frequencies in signal? Signal is pure 5 sinusoids + some noise generated during trecording on analog cable.
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1answer
21 views

What is the relation of the transition band's width and the filter order for the FIR windowing method

When designing an FIR filter using the windowing method, how can one estimate the filter order ? It's obvious that the type of window and the transitions band's width has some effect on the order.
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96 views

Why are there so many windowing functions?

Many windowing functions are listed here in the Mathematica documentation. I tried using a few to reduce leakage when computing a Discrete Fourier Transform. From what I could tell it made little ...
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2answers
49 views

Fixing my FFT Plot

I'm trying to plot my FFT of File. This i my result. I made my FFT application: I want to obtain something very similar to plot of WaveSpectra, please tell me my mistakes.. My FFT The result from ...
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2answers
98 views

Is it necessary to apply some window method, to obtain the FFT? Java

I read that the window is needed to apply filter (Low Pass, High Pass, Band Pass or band Stop), but not for the FFT. 1. What advantage does apply a window or disadvantage does not apply? 2. What ...
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48 views

BandPass and StopBand FIR filters (Hamming) is not working

I have two groups of 3 frequencies of tone (music), First Group Tones: 39 (77.7817 Hz), 40 (82.4069 Hz) and 41 (87.3070 Hz). Second Group ...
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1answer
25 views

Extending 1D window functions to 3D (or higher)

(cross post of SO: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/27345861/extending-1d-function-across-3-dimensions-for-data-windowing ) For the sake of image (volume) registration, I'd like to apply a ...
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1answer
57 views

STFT: why overlapping the window?

For STFT, we impose window of certain size onto the original signal, then we perform fft on each window. The uncertanty about frequency and time is determined by the width of the window, however, I ...
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0answers
14 views

Short Time Fourier, What happen when window is outside the sample points

I am trying to compute STFT on the following signals..... such that they have 15 cycles of (1/50) second sine wave, with Fs=10000. The algorithm for STFT I am using is :STFT algorithm Then I set ...
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41 views

Reducing latency due to FFT windowing for a real-time signal

I need to compute the amplitude of a certain frequency band as the input to a PID algorithm. My system looks like this: ...
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2answers
90 views

Where do we use windowing?

I have been studying about the box window and am unable to understand one thing, do we first sample a signal and then window it resulting in up-scaling or downscaling, or is windowing a practical case ...
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1answer
94 views

FFT on Hamming Window Function [duplicate]

I want to apply Hamming window function the Audio sample then find out its fft.. ...
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1answer
40 views

Hanning Window Formula - Matlab didnt work

Im trying to do the Hanning Window manually but didnt work, what Im doing wrong? t=[0:.1:10]; x=.5-.5*cos(2*pi*t/102); plot(x); Not sure why I cant obtain the ...
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1answer
66 views

Spacing between gaussian windows for STFT

I'm computing discrete short time Fourier transform. Data is split into overlapping chunks and gaussian window is used for each chunk. However, I'm not sure how much overlap there should be between ...
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1answer
227 views

Is it customary to correct for the gain of a window?

Consider how the Hanning window is defined: 0.5 - 0.5 * cos(n*2*Pi/(N-1)) By this definition, it has a gain of 0.5, which is simply the average value of the ...
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1answer
26 views

Overlap-windowing vs preserved information

When windowing non-overlapped segments of data stream, part of the data is being "ignored" at the boundaries of the segments due to the tapering of window functions (non-rectangular). Some information ...
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2answers
89 views

Why are window functions used when calculating spectral estimates, really?

Having just read the rather long article on Wikipedia about window functions, I still do not see the mathematical point in using window functions when calculating spectral estimates (using e.g. ...
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1answer
88 views

Slepian or DPSS window

I am planning to use Slepian or DPSS window in my application where I want central lobe to be concentrated and also have low bandwidth: ...
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1answer
38 views

Using the windowing Method

I'm trying to write a C program that can get the PSD of an recorded audio file, I'm using for the fftw3 library. I wrote a program that calculate the PSD so far ...
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1answer
379 views

How to compute the main lobe width of generalized Hamming windows (i.e. Hann, Hamming, etc.)?

Is there a way to compute the main lobe width of windows of the generalized Hamming window family (i.e. Hann, Hamming, etc.)? By main lobe I mean the first zeros left and right of the center of the ...
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2answers
159 views

At which point in the signal processing chain to use Hann Window?

I have a question about signal processing. Experienced with embedded design and code, but DSP is in new territory. Thus far I am using the CMSIS DSP library functions, which are working well. I am ...
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1answer
129 views

Improve spectrogram appearance using windowing functions MATLAB

I have a program which plots data obtained in a NI USB DAQ realtime to a spectrogram plot using the surf function. I'd like to improve the appearance of the plot using some sort of windowing function. ...
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1answer
267 views

How can I load a wav file, split it in frames, apply different filters do different frames and then recombine the filtered frames into a single file?

I'm working on a wav audio file using MATLAB. What i would like to do is: load a wav file and divide it into frames of the same dimension filter these frames (with a different filter for each ...
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2answers
91 views

Window functions with rippleless spectra

On Wikipedia I found the Hann-Poisson window, and the article claims the spectrum is smooth, but it isn't theoretically smooth, as it turns out. In practice you achieve partial smoothness by jacking ...
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3answers
201 views

What exactly is the effect of a Hann Window on the FFT output?

In the code I am trying to understand, there is an usage of Hann window multiple times (There's overlapping frames, the size of each is 512 and the overlapping factor is 75% so each time we capture ...
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3answers
178 views

A question about spectral leakage

I have read about spectral leakages in other posts here. From what i understand, it occurs because you dont have an integer number of time periods in your sampled data. By default a rectangular window ...
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2answers
130 views

Spectral leakage - understanding the integer number of cycles while windowing

I am reading tutorials about windowing and have read following sentence: For an integer number of cycles, all smoothing windows yield the same peak amplitude reading and have excellent amplitude ...
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2answers
85 views

is there a mathematical relation between percent overlap and window length or amplitude

I am trying to plot short time energy of an utterance with percent overlap as an input variable. As I referred to the short time energy equation it can be represented as square summation of ...
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1answer
95 views

Is there a closed form expression for main-lobe width increase given a window?

We know that when we window a signal, we increase the main-lobe width. Let 'main-lobe-width' here be the null-to-null bandwidth of the main lobe. Let us further more say that the main-lobe width of a ...
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2answers
803 views

Convolution in the frequency domain

We often hear that "convolution in time is the same as multiplication in frequency", and vice versa, that "convolution in frequency is the same as multiplication in time". So in a typical windowing ...
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1answer
232 views

What is the difference between Filters and Windowing?

I'm finding some difficulties to understand the difference between Filters, and Windowing. accoriding to my understanding both filters and window functions will make changes to the input signal ...
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4answers
242 views

FFT - Effects of Windowing,Improvisation approaches on RealTime FFT Hardware

Fore-word :Kindly Observe this question has multiple updates take the latest update as question ! here below is my 256pt FFT on an 2Khz sinusoid signal,on a fixed point DSP tms320c5515 please ...
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2answers
68 views

STFT - Putting it all together

I'm currently reading this paper: http://www.rssd.esa.int/SP/LISAPATHFINDER/docs/Data_Analysis/GH_FFT.pdf On page 21, it has a section called "Putting it all together", it states the following ...
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2answers
756 views

Effect of Hanning Window on phase of FFT

I'm calculating the beat of song through the frequency domain. I have 60 seconds of audio sampled at 48000Hz, multiplied by a Hanning window in the time domain. This gives me a resolution in the ...
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1answer
45 views

phenomenon when window size for STFT is too short

Hi I was researching on STFT when I encountered this slide online I don't understand the points, Can anyone explain them? Thanks in advance.
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1answer
137 views

gabor wavelet and gabor transform

I was reading a paper 'A Flexible Framework for Local Phase Coherence Computation' (paper URL) on using wavelets for local phase coherence. I just want to be sure. Is the gabor wavelet the same as the ...
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3answers
521 views

Zero-pad before or after windowing for FFT

What's the correct way. Should I zero-pad a signal before or after applying a windowing function?
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2answers
309 views

Working around FFT windowing?

I have the following problem, that I ran into recently, when calculating the spectra of data that I obtain from a measurement technique, we are using in our group. In short what we do in the ...
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3answers
2k views

Choosing the right overlap for a window function

On Wikipedia there is quite a list of window functions. However, when you are doing a lot of STFTs, you often have to have some overlap to get better results. Generally an overlap factor of 2 (i.e., ...
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5answers
163 views

To what extent can we see signals that fall between frequency bins?

I have a simple problem I would like to figure out for fourier analysis of seismic data. Let us say that we have a signal $z[n]$, of length $N$. If I take its (same size) FFT, I will get $Z[k]$, ...
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1answer
262 views

Short term energy signal explanation

I'm trying to calculate the short term energy of a digital signal in python, using a rectangular window, but don't understand the basics of how this works, a pointer to any good explanation would be ...
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1answer
79 views

frequency components of discrete Gaussian-windowed signal

When we are do a discrete Gabor transform on a 1D signal, we apply a Gaussian window on a segment of the signal. However, due to the tapering ends of the Gaussian window, the magnitude of the data ...
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1answer
72 views

How do you choose a size for a windowing function in FFT?

How does one choose the proper windowing function to apply in an FFT? What are the benefits of larger sizes and smaller ones? Which would be the best for pitch estimation? Also which window function ...
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1answer
2k views

Why should one use windowing functions for FFT?

So I just revised my pitch calculation algorithm using a harmonic product spectrum algorithm. I was just curious about why this explanation of Harmonic Product Spectrum states that you need to ...
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2answers
2k views

Split audio signal into frames, apply window function and merge again

First off: I'm really new in the signal processing department and MatLab as well, so please bear with me here. What I want to achieve is to split my audio signal into smaller 25ms frames, where the ...
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1answer
400 views

Relationship between frame rate and sampling frequency in speech signal processing?

While I was going through the short time processing of speech signals, I got stuck at the relationship between the frame rate and the sampling frequency. Is there any relationship between them for ...
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1answer
128 views

STFT zeropadding

I am trying to implement the STFT by MATLAB, and I read somewhere that we must do zeropadding to the subsequence of the signal before windowing it with a Gaussian window. What happens if we don't do ...
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0answers
561 views

Matlab: Estimating power spectral density of an experimental data?

How do I estimate PSD in matlab ? There are lots of methods to estimate, depending on application. I am using an experimental data to identify faults ( e.g. interturn fault of electric motor), which ...
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1answer
152 views

What is the physics behind the width of a main lobe?

We know that the square window gives the lowest main lobe width possible, and that other windows after that trade main lobe width for side lobe height. I also understand that the main lobe width is ...